Kurukshetra October 2019 - Agricultural Reforms (Part 3) (Download PDF)


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Public – Private partnership In Agriculture Sector: A public – private partnership (PPP, 3P or P3) Is a long – term cooperative arrangement between 2 or more public & private Sector. Genesis of PPP: - PPP Sell set up in 2016 in department of Economic affairs (DEA) Ministry of Finance Govt. of India, Acts as the secretariat for public PPP Appraisal committee (PPPAC), Empowered Committee (EC) & Empowered Institution (EI) for projects proposed for financial support thru. Viability gap fund (VGE) According to world Bank, w/close to 1500 PPP Projects in Various Stages of Implementation, India is one of leading countries in terms of readiness for PPPs.

  • As per 2015 Introscope report of Economist intelligence Unit, India ranks 1st in world in operational maturity for PPP Project, 3rd for sub-national PPP activity & 5th in terms of having an ideal environment for PPP Projects.
  • Maharashtra is pioneering state in adopting p3 Model in case of major infrastructure development projects (More than 50 %) During 2000s, other state like Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat & Tamil Nadu Also adopted this model.
  • Dimensions of PPP In Indian Agriculture
  • India is now one of fastest growing economies in world w/a targeted annual growth rate of over 8%.
  • Annual average growth rate of Indian agriculture is around 2.7 % during past year making it slowest growing Sector.
  • Maharashtra first sate to take this innovative path, rolled out its Maharashtra Public –private partnership for integrated Agricultural Development (PPPIAD) project to development integrated value chains for selected crop thru. PPP & co-investment.
  • Public & Private Sector are Challenged by issues like high transaction costs of operationalising and coordinating partnership, different objective of each sector, negative perceptions & mutual mistrust as well as uncertainty about actual benefit & outcome from PPP.
  • Hence, developing partnership needs policy support & enabling- environment to meet production target set aside for 2020 & 2030.
  • PPPs can transform sector art multiple level brining together collective power of all stakeholders in agriculture ecosystems.
  • PPP approach is adopted in various facets of agriculture such as research & development quality enhancement, crop production, extension & marketing. Functional & Operational factors of PPP linkage tend to differ from field to field based on capability of partners, budget & timeframe.

PPP Approach in various Facets of Agriculture

Image in PPP Approach in various Facets of Agriculture

Image in PPP Approach in Various Facets of Agriculture

Image in PPP Approach in various Facets of Agriculture

PPPs In research

  • Many of studies on PPPs focused on agriculture biotechnology, biosafety regulation intellectual property Rights (IPR) & ways In technology transfer
  • In support of pro-poor in developing countries.
  • Agriculture Biotechnology support Programme (ABSP) II Model in which MAHYCO, Indian Institute of vegetable research (IIVR), Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU) Coimbatore & University of Agriculture Science (UAS) Dharwad are involved in development of transgenic brinjal varieties resistant to fruit & shoot borer. In this partnership, funding is provided by ABSP & regulatory support by DBT, While mahyco provided cry gene & IIVR is responsible to develop resistant varieties.
  • In vegetable biotechnology PPs have been emerged under aegis of collaboration on insect mgmt. for brassicas in Asia & Africa (CIMBAA) Involving ICAR, India Asian vegetable research & development center (AVRDC) Taiwan University of Melbourne, Australia, Natural resources Institute, University of Greenwich UK & University of Cornell, UAS.
  • The world Bank funded NAIP Project of ICAR Established market- oriented collaborative alliances comprising public & Private partners resulting in 51 values chains covering marigold, cotton, agro –forestry, cobia, nutraceuticals, improvement in Trichogramma production, etc
  • Some of frontline areas of biotechnology research& development where PPP is visible are vaccines using recombinant technology, Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) testing kits for disease detection, gene silencing, stem cell & gene therapy (APCoAB, 2007).

PPPS In Extension

  • Agriculture Technology Management Agency (ATMA) Facilitated Commodity – based group to partner w/private agencies in production & marketing of basmati rice & medicinal plants in Bihar, Maize in Andhra Pradesh & Mango in Maharashtra
  • Monsanto India Limited (MIL) has been an important partner in agriculture through its multiple partnership w/state Govt.
  • National Institute of agriculture extension Mgmt. (MANAGE) Prepared a roadmap w/department of agriculture & Dhanuka Agritech group, a pesticide company, which is a partnership w/department of agriculture in MP, aims provide a number of service to hoshangabad district farmer.

PPPS in Market & Infrastructure Development

  • ICRISAT’s Hybrid Parents Research consortia brings together 34 small & medium- sized sorghum, millet & pigeon pea hybrids, thus contributing to the commercial viability of both domestic seed firms & wider seed market in India.
  • Govt. thru. Food Corporation of India (FCI), Adopted a Phased implementation Plan to build modern steel grains soils w/a capacity of 10 million metric tons by 2020 thru. PPPs.
  • According to ministry of agriculture & farmers welfare, GOI. area under micro-irrigation as of 2016 was only about 5 % of total area of cultivable land in India.

Knowledge Management:

  • Knowledge Management strategies in context of PPP could result in increased Production & better service delivery. A Successful PP approach in Patna district of Bihar has brought replacement of traditional rice varieties w/basmati rice, cultivation of medicinal & aromatic plants & mushroom.
  • Building Farmer’s Resilience to Environmental Shocks & Minimizing risk & Uncertainties
  • Risks & Uncertainties related to crop failure, nature calamities, pest & disease infestation & natural resource mgmt. can be minimized thru.
  • PPP approach has addressed food safety- related barriers in export of grapes in India (Narrod et al 2007).

Farm Mechanisation:

  • John Deere a leading farm implements manufacturing company has established eight agriculture implements Resource centers each covering 600 areas of cultivated land in Gujarat. This PPP is helped to promote mechanized farming in tribal region (Reddy & RAO 2011).

Social Mobilisation:

  • Development departments develop parentship create a better social linkage thru. SHGs, Farmer interest Group (FIGs) Commodity groups, farmer clubs, Farmer cooperative societies, etc Agriculture Technology Mgmt. Agencies (ATMS) facilitated creation of large number of FIGs in different state in India which.

Productivity Enhancement:

  • ICAR & Department of Biotechnology GOI. Have initiated dialogue w/Monsanto for transfer of btcotton technology in India. Subsequently mahyco partnered w/Monsanto, & introduced Btcotton in India (APCoAB, 2007) it resulted in an increase of area & productivity of cotton & real cost of production reduced.

Economic Empowerment of Farm Women:

  • PPP b/w Kerala Agriculture University, DBT & Cadbury India during past 23 years trained 250 women & established 28 cocoa chocolate units in different parts of Kerala.
  • Kudumbhasree project Mission of Department of Agriculture, women SHGs & Nadukkora agro-processing center partnered in pineapple project thru. PPP that could produce 25000 tonnes of pineapple in 500 ha & directly employed 12500 women
  • A PPP approach on odisha facilitated maize production among tribal famr women resulting in improved knowledge level, productivity & income. PPP is found to do gender mainstreaming making it possible for farm women to increase access of technologies, input, credits & markets & eradicating gender differences and discriminations in rural area
  • Catalysed by world Economic forum’s New vision for Agriculture (NVA) Maharashtra PPPIAD aims to develop integrated value chains.
  • GOI id developing pilot PPP projects to streamline post- harvest supply chains of major perishable agriculture & horticulture commodities thru. A ” Hub & spoke ” model consisting of farm collection points & primary processing centres, backed by institutional mechanisms for forward & backward linkages.
  • Limitations of PPP models in Agriculture:
  • Resource poor farmer lack capacity to raise their own capital to finance agro –processing infrastructure. The agro- processing facility that depends on a single commodity grown by small- scale farmers carrying high levels of production risk problems associated w/surety of supply of raw materials, mode of procurement & rate fixing, affect cooperation & coordination b/w partner.
  • Private extension services focus on resourceful areas, resources- endowed farmers & limited to profitable crops & areas, thus varying widely.
  • PPP approach has been less in case of disadvantageous areas & non-commercial crops.

Challeneges of PPP Approach & way Forward:

  • Each PPP Approach is unique & no two PPP Contract are same.
  • Lack of transparency is one of the most discussed problems related to PPP. Long time taken for creation of PPP arrangement & Number of formalities required to follow happen to be another issues in implementation of PPP approach, undue political favours lack of transparency
  • A PPP Project has to mainly pass thru. 4 main phases viz projects preparation, projects procurement, project development & operations. Each of these stages require a careful handling planning & clear- cut demarcating lines of work.

Irrigation Techniques To Get Per Drop More Crop

  • Since more than 80 % of available water is used for irrigation, high priority is given to water conservation & irrigation water mgmt.
  • Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY) is launched in year 2015 w/the vision of extending coverage of irrigation “Har khet ko pani “& improved water use efficiency “more crop per drop” in a focused manner where micro irrigation has been given paramount importance.
  • Micro irrigation mainly in form of sprinkler irrigation & drip irrigation has become fastest growing water saving technology worldwide & potential to increase quality of produce.

India’s Agriculture Area:

  • Areas where irrigation is less than or equal to 30 % net sown area are called ‘rainfed ’ & more than 30 % Of Net Sown Are Known As Irrigated Area. According to NITI Aayog, GOI statistics, irrigation consumes 84 % of water & it is estimated that 52 % of cropped areas are w/o irrigation.
  • India’s Irrigated agriculture has 2 parts: i) Surface irrigation development due to high public investment by state & ii) over development of groundwater resources due to private tube well development
  • Country has high dependence on groundwater. Annual utilizable water resources in country are estimated as 690 billion cubic meter (BCM) from surface water & 447 BCM from groundwater.

Micro irrigation Technologies:

  • Micro irrigation technology mainly sprinkler irrigation & drip irrigation not only helps in water saving but also in reduction in fertilizer usage labour expenses & other inputs & input costs.
  • Micro irrigation systems can save water up to 40%-50 % over conventional flood irrigation method along with enhanced agriculture.

Improved Irrigation Methods:

  • Since 8th plan, Department of agriculture, cooperation & Framer welfare (DAC&FW) has been promoting Micro irrigation (MI) method like drip irrigation & sprinkler irrigation later MI was launched as centrally sponsored scheme (CSS) in 2005 - 06
  • It was up-scaled to national mission on micro irrigation (NMMI) in 2010.
  • National Mission for sustainable agriculture (NMSA) was formed in the year 2014 - 15 & micro irrigation was considered as on – farm water mgmt. component of NMSA.
  • It was taken under ‘more crop per drop’ component of Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY) launched on 1st July 2015. Micro irrigation is an integral component of PMKSY to maximum water use efficiency at filed level.

Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY):

  • Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY) is launched with the motto of providing “har khet ko paani” Scheme aims at providing end to end solution in irrigation supply chain viz water resources, distribution network, farm level applications and improved water use efficiency.
  • Both central & state Govt. promote this technology & in the FY 2015 - 16 the funding pattern under PMKSY is fixed as 50: 50 % b/w central & sate Govt. main objective central of PMKSY is to achieve convergence of investments in litigation sector at field level.
  • Area covered under drip irrigation is 5.75 lakh ha & that of sprinkler irrigation is 5.83 lakh ha. The other interventions such as potential created for protective irrigation is 1.30 Lakh Ha.

Impact of Micro Irrigation:

  • MI Offers enhancement of crop productivity due to judiciaries in 13 state were studied. Benefits are notice in term of
  • Increased in irrigation area 8.41 % from same source of water. Crop productivity was increase in fruit & vegetables 42.3 % & 52.8 % respectively
  • Reduction in use of chemical fertilizers by 7 % 42 % w/an average 28 %
  • Overall farmers income was increased by 20 % 68 % w/an average increase of 48.5 % Benefit cost ratio was greater than one across state it also ensures additional benefits like non-exploitation of ground water, reduction in cost of weeding & relief from water scarcity included labour migration.
  • PMKSY has major strength such as focus on sustainable growth concept, convergence of various scheme & removal of redundancies, greater responsibility & accountability at district level.
  • Large & medium farmer in India comprises only 15 % but they hold more than 55 % of the land.
  • Small & marginal farmers are entitled to obtain a subsidy up to 55 % of total cost of system & for other farmers up to 45%.
  • Gujarat green revolution company (GGRC) Limited in 2005 for successful implementation of Govt. schemes for MI. GGRC Provides all necessary infrastructures for crop cultivation, facilitates cultivation under adverse climatic conditions, helps to develop market linkage for produces & to enhance economic conditions of small & marginal farmers. Prior to establishment of GGRC average annual achievement were 0.015 Mha/year (1991 - 2005) & is increased to 0.128 Mha/Year recently.

Micro irrigation:

  • High water application efficiency
  • Easily implement even if the fields are irregular shapes
  • Uniform application of fertilizers
  • Reduction in weed growth & cost of cultivation
  • Reduction in energy consumption & operational at low pressures.

NON Farm Activities To Accelerate Agri Growth

  • NSSO Survey on household consumption expenditure for year 2011 - 12 also brings into light that more than one 5th of rural household w/agriculture as their principle occupation were having income below poverty line.
  • Nearly 70 % of farmer are involved in animal husbandry processing around 80 % of total livestock India is largest procedure of milk in the world for last 2 decades w/over 155 million tonnes of production & per capita availability of 337 grams per day as against world average of 299 grams.
  • Vegetable are also an important part of horticulture sector. They constitute about 59 % of horticulture production in India.

Food Processing:

  • Processing of agriculture produce is an important aspect of commercialization of agriculture aspect of commercialization of agriculture in India. It enable to fetch fair & remunerative price to producers thru. Value addition in their agriculture produce.
  • Presently processing of fruit & vegetable is inly 2 % in India in comparison to 80 % in USA.
  • There is an enormous & ever increasing demand for canned fruits, juice, Jam, Jelly, sauce, pickle & honey etc. In rural semi-urban & urban area. Farmers can start these activates on part time basis to supplement their income during slack season in farm sector.
  • It has a very high employment potential w/significantly low investment. Thus there is an ample scope for expansion of food processing sector particularly in rural areas of the country.
  • Some other activates which can fetch employment to the surplus manpower of agriculture sector are, blacksmith, carpentry, pottery, tailoring repairing of agriculture machinery & tools, shoe making, bamboo products lac production & work on handlooms etc. .

Skill development:

  • Nearly 62 % of total population of India is in working age group (15 to 59 years) & more than 54 % of the total population is below 25 years of age.
  • Here only 4.69 % of total work has undergone formal skill training as compared to 68 % in UK USA, 80% & 75 % in Germany. As per report of national skill development corporation (NSDC) It is estimated that there is an additional requirement of 120.79 millions skilled manpower in India by year 2022 in 24 key sector. Of this approximately 101.19 millions job opportunities are likely to be created for skilled rural youth in 11 Sector during ensuring 3.4 years.
  • In order Improve rural infrastructure by connecting rural habitation w/main roads Bharatmala project has also been launched w/special emphasis on rural area including the tribal & backwards hinterland.
  • In order to strengthen & enhance power supply in rural areas, Deen Dayal Upadhyaya gram jyoti Yojana was launched on July 25,2015 w/an estimated outlay of Rs. 43033 Cr. It envisaged 100 % village electrification by March 2019
  • Additional Requirement of skilled manpower in major sectors by 2022 (Persons in million)
  • Table Show in skilled manpower in major sectors by 2022

    Table Show in skilled manpower in major sectors by 2022

    Sr. No


    Additional Manpower Requirement


    Building, Construction & Real Estes



    Domestic Help



    Food Processing



    Furniture & Furnishing



    Gems & jewellery



    Handlooms & Handicraft



    Leather & Leather Goods



    Retail Business






    Textile & clothing



    Transport & logistics




  • Subsequently, Pradhan Mantri Sahaj Bijali Har Ghar Yojana Scheme was launched on 25th September 2017 to provided energy access throughout county. As per Saubhagya portal of ministry of power, out of 21.69Cr. Rural household in county, 20.92 Cr. Were electrified up to 15th December 2018.
  • w/a view to empower rural youth by developing their innovative entrepreneurial skill & promote employment in agri-based vocational areas, a Programme named as skill traing of rural youth is launched.
  • It offer modular skill traing opportunities to rural youths in farm & non- farm sector in accordance w/the requirement of local agro based industries.
  • Kaushal Vardhan kendras at panchayat level for mobilizing & imparting skill pertaining to local employment/livehood opportunities to school drop –out, adolescent girls, housewives& rural youth.
  • Deen Dayal Upadhyay Grameen Kausalya Yojana was launched on 25th September 2014. it occupies a unique position among skill training programs due to its focus on the rural poor youth in the age group 15 - 35 year who due to their poverty driven constraints could not get formal education & marketable skills. Under this Programme it is mandatory to give minimum 160 hours of traing in soft skills function English & computer iterancy etc. . To
  • Transform rural poor youth into an economically independent & globally relevant workforce presentably DDU-GKY is being implemented in 568 districts of the country.
  • In order to train women w/no access to formal skill training facilities, particularly in rural area a Programme named as support to training & employment Programme for women (STEP) was launched by ministry of women & child development. program aims at imparting skill training in several sector such as agriculture, horticulture food processing, handlooms traditional craft like embroidery, hospitality, computer & IT Services.
  • On 7th October 2017, Pradhan Mantri Gramin Digital Shiksha Abhiyan (PMGDISHA) was launched to impart digital literacy skill. Under this abhiyan, rural people b/w age group of 14 to 60 years are being trained w/o any fess to operate computer, tablets, smart phones access Govt. e-service, Undertake digital payment compose-e-mails thru. Use of internet.
  • Recently, Pradhan Mantri Kisan samman Nidhi (PM-KISAN) yojana is launched to augment income of families of small & marginal farmers w/land holding up to 2 hectares, subjects to certain exclusions scheme aims at supplementing finical needs of the SMFs to their occupation as well as domestic needs. This would also protect them from falling in the clutches of money lenders to meet out their petty expenses. Under this scheme a sum of Rs. 6000/- per year is to be transferred in 3 equal installments into bank accounts of eligible farmer.
  • To attract unemployed educated youth into agribusiness & agri-preneurship special impetus on creating scientific temper & fostering innovative sprit among the rural youth is also required.

Mahatma Gandhi & The Important of Farmers

  • Nobel laureated, Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore talks of how both Gandhi & Buddha had instilled Spirit of fellow –feelings & Compassion amongst people.
  • Depth of Gandhi’s Approach to reach out to last person has been stressed by his non-violent action throughout his interventions during India’s freedom struggle.
  • Amongst groups of dispossessed, Gandhi tried to address, farmes remained a pivotal group, which actually gave shape to his evolution from Mohandas to mahatma. One of those farmers who actually became a catalyst in this process was Rajkumar Shukla from Champaran Bihar.
  • Gandhi to Champaran to initiate struggle of peasants against the unjust Tinkathiya systems is a significant feature of the chequered history of our freedom struggle. Champaran was a struggle of people & an important experiment of truth & ahimsa. Gandhi was clear as he wrote in his autobiography that his objective in Champaran was to inquire into the condition of Champaran agriculturists & understand their grievances against indigo planters.
  • He described condition of village in his autobiography: “The village were insanitary, lanes were full of filth, well surrounded by mud & stink & courtyards unbearably untidy elder people badly needed education in cleanliness so it was decided to do as much sanitary work as possible & to penetrate every department of their lives. “
  • Another important Farmer struggle which Gandhi led was Kheda Satyagraha.
  • A Condition of famine had arisen in Kheda district of Gujarat due to widespread failure of crops. The farmers wanted revenue assessment for year suspended.
  • When pleas of farmers were not heard, Gandhi motivated farmers to resort satyagraha.
  • An Important common thread in both Champaran & Kheda satyagraha was that Gandhi was able to instil amongst farmers spirit of fearlessness,
  • For instance, during Kheda satyagraha, Gandhi wrotes in his autobiography, “Main thing was to rid agriculturists of their fear by making them realize that officials were not master but servants, in as much as they received their salaries from tax payers. “

President of India Graces Swachh Mahotsav 2019

  • President Shri Ram Nath Kovind, graced & addressed Swachh Mahotsav 2019, a function held at vigyan Bhavan in new Delhi on 6th September organised by the union Ministry of jal Shakti
  • Sustainable Development goals set by the united Nation are to be achieved by 2030. But India is set to achieve cleanliness targets 11 years ahead, that is in 2019 itself.

- Published/Last Modified on: November 2, 2019


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