Kurukshetra September 2017 Comprehensive Summary / Gist: Skilling Rural India (Download PDF)

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Since Lal Bahadur Shastri launched “Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan” – farmers have been the focus, India never imported pulses (except few occasions with merely few thousand tons), Record production of 16 lakh tons of pulses this year, PM Fasal Bima Yojana – security cover to farmers, PM Krishi Sinchai Yojana – meet water demands, PM Kisan Sampada Yojana – encourage infrastructure building.

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Skilling Rural India: Kurukshetra September 2017 Summary (In English)

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Kurukshetra September 2017: Skilling Rural India

Breakthroughs:

  • Electricity to 14,000 villages
  • 29 crore bank account opened
  • 2 crore females have LPG
  • Poor can save Rs. 7000 on medicine with Swachh Bharat
  • Cheap medicine by Jan Aushadhi Kendras
  • Double farmer income by 2022

Skill India

  • Population pyramid will bulge in “15 - 59” years age group by next decade
  • By 2020, average age of Indian population will be 29 years against 40 years for USA and 47 years for Japan.
  • 50 lakh youth enter workforce every year
  • But India’s IT institutes can train only 25 lakh per year – so capacity enhancement is must
  • 10.9 crore human resources will be required across 24 high growth sectors in 2022
  • 90 % workforce is engaged in unorganized sector
  • Vocational training is not considered mainstream
  • 2014: Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship was established
  • In 2015: Directorate General of Training which was under Ministry of Labour and Employment is now under MSDE
  • Apprentice Act, 1961 has been modified to encourage industry for apprentices
  • MSDE addresses challenges like – scale, quality, employability and aspirations
  • Training centers have shown rise in placement rate by 65 % for fee based courses and 12 % for PMKVY courses under NSDC
  • Strengthening Quality
  • Grading system – 43 parameters – newly established Skill Management and Accreditation of Training Centers (SMART) portal
  • Strengthening of Accreditation and Affiliation norms
  • Extensive Curriculum Reforms – 63 curricula upgraded

Improve Employment

  • Apprenticeship Reforms – increase upper limit to 10% & introduce optional trade pathway
  • Launch of NAPS – National Apprenticeship Promotion Scheme – incentivize employers, transport system of operation, better communication and integration

Making Skill Training Aspirational in Youth

  • Address cultural mindset with job mela, camps and awards and PM Kaushal Kendras
  • Create vertical and horizontal progression pathways between formal and vocational educational streams

Formalize Entrepreneurship

  • Entrepreneurship borne out of necessity (jugad models)
  • Entrepreneurship in high technology start ups
  • PM Yuva Yojana for budding entrepreneurs – easy credit, incubation support and mentorship – online entrepreneur education to 15 lakh students by 3050 projects online – WOF is contributing free of cost software, knowledge and content for this scheme
  • Moving to Industry 4.0 – intersection of internet of things to secondary sector that is manufacturing – automation like six sigma and efficiencies driven by supply chain management
  • Establishment of Indian Skill Development Services (ISDS) by MSDE in 2017 – Group “A” service with intake by IES (UPSC)
  • Grant freedom to universities to make them world class
  • IN last 3 years, 6 IIT, 7 IIM and 8 IIIT established

Entrepreneurs at “Champion of Change” Initiative by Niti Aayog

  • Innovation
  • Aspire traditional crafts to modernize
  • Waste to wealth
  • Solutions for daily problems – target rural
  • Campus placements – must for best teachers – 32 transponders for education sector – provide quality education to poor without diversion to common man

MSDE Achievements

National training program to certify GST practitioners under PM Kaushal Vikas Yojana – recognition of prior learning, keep up with changing competition and new accreditation

  • Launch Takshashila – portal for trainers and repository of information
  • Train 1.17 crore people under MSDE
  • Train 26.5 lakh candidates under PM Kaushal Vikas Yojana
  • Bring 4.82 people in organized sector
  • Open 1381 new ITIs
  • Launched Driver Training Institutes
  • Udaan schemes in J & K
  • Convergence by common norms
  • Partnered with MHRD to create bridge course for academic equivalence

National Policy on Skill Development & Entrepreneurship -2015

India has 1/5th of world’s youth population

Youth population b/w 15 - 34 years was 34.8 % in 2011 and projected to 31.8 % in 2030

Renewed version of National Policy of Skill Development in 2009

Covers skill development for wage employment, entrepreneurship and acknowledge Recognition of Prior Learning

  • Meet the challenge of skilling at scale with speed and standard (quality).
  • Umbrella framework to all skilling
  • Align them to common standards and link the skilling with demand centers
  • Identify the various institutional frameworks which can act as the vehicle to reach the expected outcomes
  • Provide clarity and coherence on how skill development efforts across the country can be aligned
  • Link skill development to improved employability and productivity

What to Look For?

  • Advocacy
  • Capacity
  • Quality
  • Synergy
  • Mobilization
  • Promotion of Skill amongst women
  • ICT enabled
  • Inclusivity
  • Educate and equip
  • Entrepreneurship Hubs
  • Ease of doing business
  • Improve finance and grassroot innovation
  • Bridge sectoral divide
  • Set up new ITs in unserved blocks
  • Improve quality

Align educational institutes with National Skill Qualification Framework by Dec 2018

Implement ISO 29990 certification

Challenges

  • Dropouts from school and colleges
  • Convergence of schemes to normal norms
  • Shortage of trained staff
  • Mismatch between aspiration and requirement
  • Lack of apprenticeship training
  • No training in non-farm activities
  • Information dissemination on placement of skilled trainees
  • Lack of technicians of world standards

In Finland and South Korea, vocational education is at par with mainstream education

Introduce automation, robotics, cloud computing

Skilling for Employment

  • High entry of workforce – 11 to 12 million is unique to few countries
  • Unemployed people expected to rise by 1 lakh in 2017 and 2 lakh in 2018
  • We have few opportunities and lot of labor
  • Population increased by 43 % in 20 years but landless agricultural laborers increased by 93%- no work
  • What can be done?
  1. Set up grain storage facilities
  2. Cold chains
  3. Advance logistics – check wastage of food
  • Labor intensive sectors – textile, garment, jewelry, BPO and handloom have great potential
  • Set up franchise BPOs
  • Create job for infrastructural development – slum upgradation, sewerage and drainage
  • Encourage MSDE with 45 % manufacturing, 42 % export and 37 % GDP – for maximum growth and produce
  • MSDE – 2 lakh collateral loans allowed
  • Govt. made mandatory for PSUs to make 20 % purchase from small businesses
  • Popularize handlooms for domestic and export purpose
  • Create “Brand India” internationally
  • Create hallmark called “Rural India Skill”
  • Innovative course methodology – with games, GDs, FGDs
  • Diversify Khadi and village industries with aggressive marketing
  • Long term employment strategy for organized and unorganized sectors
  • Generate 250 million jobs b/w now and 2050

Initiatives

  • Ageing population will create manpower shortage of 56.7 million by 2040
  • Skilled manpower having 28 % graduate talent pool among 28 of world’s lowest cost economies
  • Formally skilled labor force in India is only 2 % while South Korea has 96 % and Japan has 80 % skilled workforce
  • At national level there are 58 % unemployed graduates and 62 % unemployed PGs
  • Rashtriya Uchchatar Shikha Abhiyan
  • Technical Education Quality Improvement
  • National Skill Qualification Framework
  • Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushal Yojana – placement linked development scheme for poor rural youth for economic independence – highest number in Andhra Pradesh followed by Punjab. Lowest centers are seen in Gujarat.
  • Aajeevika skills restructured under DDU GKY for capacity building
  • Market led training, placement to 70 % candidates, priority on rural youth from poor families, coverage of marginalized groups
  • Minimum salary of Rs. 6000/month after 3 month training
  • Career progression support
  • Roshini scheme for poor families in left wing extremist
  • Himayat scheme in J & K
  • Generic training on soft skills
  • Training on trade specific skills
  • Mentor India Program – leaders who can mentor students at 900 Atal tinkering Labs (students class 6 to 12th) – innovation, robotics, 3D printing
  • Rural Self Employment Training Institutes – unemployed youth of 18 - 45 years can take training at RSETI
  • PM Kaushal Vikas Yojana – Outlay of Rs. 12,000 crore – Centrally Sponsored Centrally Managed implemented by National Skill Development Corporation and Centrally Sponsored State Managed – 75 % funds for Fresh Short Term Training & Recognition of Prior Learning
  • Build social capital for coordination and cooperation to facilitate convergence
  • Developing domain knowledge, competent faculties and tracking of trainees, develop good institutes in backward areas
  • Schemes like Nai Manzil, USTTAD and ASPIRE

Vocational Education

  • Only 2.5 % population has vocational education
  • Focus on rural, tribal, NE states, women, STs, SCs
  • 69 % population in villages with agriculture as largest employer but contribute only 13 % to GDP
  • Skill training – long term, short term and integrated with 300 hours
  • All new it is under new format compatible with CBSE and ICSE equivalent schools
  • Indiaskillsonline. com is part of Skill India campaign – soft skills, digital literacy and modules for entrepreneurship – anytime anywhere skilling opportunities to skill aspirants, expand skilling initiative and contribute output quality
  • Skills of 2015 will be outdated in 2020 with artificial intelligence and biotechnology

Role of NGOs & Private Sector

  • Despite 63 % economically active population only 2 % is skilled
  • 11 - 13 million people aspire for opportunities every year
  • Since 65 % population is below 35 years, country enjoys labor power
  • Credit subsidized programs like IRDP, SJSRY, SGSY, NRLM, MGNREGA (minimum 100 days of employment)
  • NGO – voluntary, autonomous, non-profit units to address problems and disadvantages of society – implement skills and mobilize resources
  • Corporate Social Responsibility or corporate citizenship – incur short term cost that might not be financially beneficial to company but promote social and environmental change – get right job to right person
  • Social Work – empower people to develop skills and use resources to resolve problems
  • Self Help Group – Informal association of 10 - 20 people with base in villages
  • Diaspora – movement of people away from homeland, in Punjab village helped by diaspora is home to rural polytechnic
  • GeM – Government e-Marketplace to transform procurement of goods and services by Government Ministries and helps to bring around transparency, efficiency, safety – process here are lower by 15 - 20 % and upto 56 % in some cases
  • Meet target to skill 500 million people by 2022

Science and Technology

  • Science, Technology and Innovation Policy 2013 explains enhancing skills for science, technology and innovation among youth from all strata of society
  • Scientific temper – logical approach to make a person rational
  • India has 19 % population of youth compared to China with 17.8 % and USA with 14.1%
  • Unemployment among rural youth is highest since 1993 - 94
  • Al Basham in Wonders that was India explains delicacy of the works of Indian craftsman with simple tools and spinners, metallurgical wonders like Mehrauli Pillar in Delhi
  • Superstition contradicts the science
  • Create scientific awareness and healthy discussions
  • Mass media and role of TV and radio programs in awareness
  • 2016: Vigyan Prasar (autonomous institute under DST) developed 37 video clips for women friendly improved farm tools for skill development
  • India is 1st country to adopt national Science Policy (Scientific Policy resolution in 1958) with two more milestones in 2003 (Science and Technology Policy) and 2013 (Science, Technology and Innovation Policy)
  • National Handloom Day – 7th August

Empowering Women

  • Fall in labor force participation of women form 33.3 % to 26.5%
  • Work on gender discrimination, deprivation, biasness, and early marriage, childbearing
  • Nari Shakti – civilization is incomplete without empowerment of women
  • 57 % rural women of age 5 years and above engaged in domestic duties which it’s only 13 % for Urban India
  • Highest number of women are employed in dairy sector followed by poultry
  • DDU-GKY – 1/3rd seats reserved for women, migration support centers to monitor the needs
  • TREAD – Trade Related Entrepreneurship Development Assistance Program for women entrepreneurs – grant 30 % of loans subject to maximum ceiling of 30 lakhs for NGOs – tailoring, handicraft, toy making, masala, coir mats etc.
  • STEP – Support to Training and Employment Program for Women is Central Sector Scheme of Ministry of Women and Child Development – poor women in traditional trade to improve employability
  • MUDRA scheme – funding the unfunded – seed new enterprise and expand existing units for financial support to women entrepreneurs
  • Mahila Coir Yojana – 1st women oriented self-employment scheme implemented by Coir Board for empowerment of rural woman artisans
  • National Rural Livelihood Mission – largest poverty reduction program for women with goal to reach 70 million households – managed by GoI and World Bank

As per 4th Advance Estimated production of major crops during 2016 - 17 is as under:

  • Total Foodgrains production is estimated at record 275.68 million tonnes
  • Rice is estimated at record 110.15 million tonnes
  • Wheat is also estimated at record 98.38 million tonnes
  • Coarse Cereals estimated at a record level of 44.19 million tonnes
  • Pulses is estimated at record 22.95 million tonnes
  • Oilseeds production is estimated at 32.10 million tonnes
  • Cotton is estimated at 33.09 million bales
  • Sugarcane is estimated at 306.72 million tonnes

Cleanliness Drive

  • Swachh Survekshan Gramin – 2017
  • Assess rural sanitation on following parameters
  1. Access to toilets
  2. Usage of toilets
  3. Presence of litter and stagnant waste water
  • Swachhta Rath – mobile vans with LED panel for screening Swachhta films and Nukkad Natak team for community engagement in villages
  • Ganga Gram – focus on cleanliness and infrastructure facilities like Solid waste management, rejuvenation of ponds, water conservation, organic farming etc. – 100 % ODF, proper disposal of waste, water conservation efforts, sprinkler irrigation, tourism. 24 model grams in 5 states – Uttarakhand, UP, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal. (UP to be fully ODF by 2018)
  • Swachh Sankalp se Swachh Siddhi – make “Filth – Quit India” – essay and short film competition
  • Swachhathon 1.0: Crowd source solutions for problems faced by India in sanitation and Hygiene – usage of toilets, behavioral change, toilet technology etc.
  • Celebrate 15th August as Sankalp Parv or Day to Resolve and transform that resolution into Siddhi or attainment by 2022
  • What should Quit India Now? Filth, Poverty, Corruption, Terrorism, Casteism, Communalism

Sankalp Se Siddhi

  • Roosevelt managed economic depression by New Deal Policy – removed capitalism
  • New portal – www.newindia.in
  • Launch of Sputnik by Russia - Putin
  • 1942 to 1947 – India’s tryst with destiny – crucial years for freedom
  • Mahatma Gandhi’s do or die
  • 2017 - 22: Crucial years for social change
  • Churchill on India’s independence said that India will not be able to maintain unity and integrity after independence and will require British support
  • Bombay Plan (1944) where 8 top industrialist disliked laissez faire state and hoped that Indian Govt. would do something significant was compared with 2017 - GST and insolvency laws
  • Build new India through reform to transform approach – smart solution, smart city, smart infrastructure, smart classroom, smart transportation etc.
  • Make India Initiative – New Process, New Infrastructure, New Sectors, New Mindset with zero defect and zero effect so that manufacturing has no adverse impact on environment
  • Nation first approach must be set
  • India – 79th rank amongst 176 countries in Corruption Perception Index – GST, Benami act, JAM, DBT etc.
  • Move forward Gandhiji battle against untouchability
  • According to World Bank, India accounts for largest number of people below international poverty line in 2013
  • Ratio of stunted children in India is around 40%
  • 2016: Of total 11,072 terror attacks, India is home to 927
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Skilling Rural India: Kurukshetra September 2017 Summary (In Hindi)

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Kurukshetra September 2017: Skilling Rural India

- Published/Last Modified on: November 22, 2017

Kurukshetra

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