Kurukshetra September 2018: Sustainable Rural Development (Part - 2) (Download PDF)


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MGNREGS: Empowerment Rural India - Mahatma Gandhi National Rural employment Guarantee Scheme – flagship program of govt. is quite relevant as program aims at enhancing livelihood security of rural poor.

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Sustainable Rural Development: Kurukshetra September 2018 (In English)

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Kurukshetra September 2018: Sustainable Rural Development

  • Scheme is modelled on format of National Rural Employment Program (NREP) brought out by Govt. in 1977.

  • 👌 It is also being linked to Employment Guarantee Scheme (EGS), which was 1stinitiated in Maharashtra way back in 1970s.

  • It was initially called National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS).

Modified version

  • Over 5.5 cr. workers have been put on Aadhar – based Payment System & Aadhar numbers of 9.23 cr. workers have been seeded so far in NREGA Soft MIS.

Geo – tagging assures Transparency

  • MGNREGS is expected to have some impact on cropping pattern.

  • In some areas, there has been shift from low value traditional crops to high values crops.

  • Stipend – based apprenticeship may be adopted to ensure skill enhancement because this empowers people & prepares them for jobs to conform to new technologies.

Some Highlights

👌 In Karnataka, NREGA workers have even been employed to manufacture environment – friendly earthen bricks. Maharashtra govt. ‘s Jalyukt Shivar Abhiyan to make 5,000 villages drought-free by 2019 depended on NREGA.

📝 Type of Works undertaken

  • Water conservation & harvesting, digging new tanks/ponds.

  • Making of small check dams, etc.

  • Draught proofing & plantation, tree plantation, etc.

  • Flood control & protection drainage in water logged areas.

  • Construction & repair of embarkment, etc.

  • Land development plantation, land leveling, etc.

  • Micro irrigation works, Minor irrigation canals.

  • Renovation of traditional eater bodies, desilting tanks/ponds.

  • Provision of irrigation facility in areas inhabited by Scheduled castes & Schedule tribes as well.

  • Rural connectivity, construction of roads.

Health Services in Rural India

  • Public (or govt. ) health facilities in India are organized in 3 tier structure of primary, secondary & tertiary levels.

  • Public health facilities in rural India include health sub centres (HSC), primary health centres (PHCs) & community health centres (CHCs).

Human Resources for Health in India

Table contain shows the Human Resources for Health in India

Table contain shows the Human Resources for Health in India

Health Sub-Centres

Primary Health Centres

Community Health Centres

Average number of villages covered




Average rural population covered (Status as in 2017)




Average rural area covered (in Sq. Km)




Average radial distance covered in Km




Availability of other category of health staffs

  • Majority of medical doctors & nurses in India (approx. 85 - 90%) & nearly almost half of hospital beds are in pvt. sector in India.

Challenges & Way Forward

  • GoI announced flagship Ayushman Bharat Program (ABP) in February 2018. One of components of this program aims to upgrade 150,000 of existing HSCs & PHCs into Health & Wellness Centres (HWCs) by Dec 2022.

  • GoI has started on National Health Resource Repository (NHRR), which aims to collect information on existing health facilities, providers & services available at facilities. Initial attention is on urban areas & secondary & tertiary level facilities.

SPMRM: Bridging Rural-Urban Divide

  • United Nations (UN) has defined 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in 2015.

  • 👌 Shyama Prasad Mukherji Rurban Mission (SPMRM), aimed at developing rural areas which are connected to urban areas & have potential to grow if they can be served by advanced infrastructure of proximate cities.

  • Mission strives to strengthen rural areas by providing economic, social & infrastructure amenities, thus leading to sustainable & balanced regional development in country.


  • According to Economic Survey’17,8 - 9 million people migrate for work opportunities w/I India annually.

  • By 2050, it is estimated that more than half of India will be living in urban India. After consequent droughts in recent past, large number of people from Marathawada, Bundelkhand & Telangana migrated to cities.

Reason for Not using Formal Sector

  • Fixed transaction costs & annual fees tend to make small transaction unaffordable for large parts of population in developing economies.

📝 Shyama Prasad Mukherjee National Rurban Mission

  • Vision statement of SPMRM is “Development of cluster of villages that preserve & nurture essence of rural community life w/focus on equity & inclusiveness w/o compromising w/facilities perceived to be essentially urban in nature, thus creating cluster of “Rurban villages”.

  • ‘Rurban cluster’, would be cluster of geographically contiguous villages w/population of abt. 25000 to 50000 in plain & coastal areas & w/population of 5000 to 15000 in desert, hilly or tribal areas.

📝 Non-Tribal Clusters

  • State Govt. can select clusters by considering parameters of:

  • Decadal growth in Rural Population

  • Rise in Land Values

  • Decadal growth in Non-Farm Work force participation

  • Percentage Enrollment of girls in secondary schools

  • Percentage Households w/Bank accounts under Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana

  • Performance in Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin)

  • Good Governance Initiatives by Gram Panchayats

  • Any other factor which States may consider relevant may also be included.

  • Weightage of 80 % would be given for 1st 4 parameters & States will have flexibility to choose last 3 parameters, subject to total weightage of 20%.

Tribal Clusters

  • Selection of sub districts would be based on parameters such as

  • Decadal growth in Tribal Population

  • Current Tribal Literacy Rate

  • Decadal growth in Non-Farm Work force participation

  • Decadal growth in Rural Population

  • Presence of Economic Clusters

The Way Forward


  • Quality infrastructure has to be provided for rural & urban citizenry.

  • Resources of Rurban clusters should be earmarked & devoted towards inclusive growth.

  • Focus on areas of infrastructure constraints

  • Processes which impede implementation should be eliminated.

  • Access to clean cooking stove alternatives linked w/urban populations.


  • Pvt. sector involvement & interaction w/govt.

  • Linking Post offices w/various spread of information & awareness.

  • Formation of Joint Liability Groups

  • Use of smart cards in rural banks will ensure ease of transactions

  • Inclusiveness of plans & their implementation is inevitable for sustainable development.

Digital Technology: Connecting Rural India

  • Broadband internet access is seen as central for societal innovation because storing of large datasets & live communication requires good connectivity.

  • New wireless technologies such as MESH & WiMAX & new generation mobile phone networks will provide high speed internet services at sharply reduced costs, thereby dramatically increasing internet coverage in rural areas.

  • National Alliance for Mission 2007 & Common Service Centre Scheme to establish tele-centres country-wide in India are clear examples of govt. ‘s dedication to enhance rural access.

Digital support to Agriculture

  • Digital Technology can deliver useful information to farmers abt. agriculture like crop care and animal husbandry, fertilizer & feedstock inputs, pest control, seed sourcing & market prices.

  • Digital technology is one of means whose potential can be exploited to bridge gap b/w research system & farming system.

  • Farmers need dynamic information relating to cultivation, management, meteorological & marketing factors as related to crops, livestock, fisheries, agro-forestry & agro-processing.

  • Pvt. sector-led Agriwatch (www.agriwatch.com) & e-Choupal program (www.itcportal.com/ruraldevp_philosophy/echoupal.htm) support several million farmers w/price information, tender & transaction facilities.

Digital Technology for Capacity-building

  • Indian AMUL program automates milk collection & payments for its 500,000 members, thereby enhancing transparency of milk volume & quality collected & ensuring fair payments to farmers.

Transforming Rural India


  • e-Choupal comes up as fine example of empowerment w/efficient supply-chain system empowering farmers w/timely & relevant information enabling them better returns for their produce.


  • Practice of e-governance, which creates transparency & governance thru IT has empowered citizens.

Market expansion

  • In India, ICT applications such as Warana, Drishtee, e-Chaupal, E-Seva, Lokmitra, E-Post, Gramdoot, Gyandoot, Tarahaat, Dhan, Akshaya, Honeybee, Praja are quite successful in achieving their objectives.


  • 👌 This is program of Dept. of Agriculture, Gujarat which aims to analyze soil of all villages of state & proposes to provide online guidance to farmers on their soil health condition, fertilizer usage & alternative cropping pattern.


  • 👌 AGRISNET uses state-of-the-art broadband satellite technology to establish network w/I country.


It is comprehensive database which links together all imp. agricultural produce markets in country.


👌 It professionalizes & reorganizes agriculture trading business of Mandi Board by installing cost effective digital infrastructure using latest advancement in digital technology by collecting & delivering real time information online.

Query Redressal Services

Project helps farming community by making available 10000 plus network of experts to them.

Tata Kisan Kendra

Concept of precision farming being implemented by TKKs has potential to catapult rural India from bullock-cart age into new era of satellites & IT.


ITC’s Agri Business Division launched it in June 2000 on which village internet kiosks managed by farmers – called sanchalaks – themselves, enable agricultural community access ready information in their local language on weather & market prices.


👌 Word ‘Sagu’ meaning ‘cultivation’ in Telugu language, aims to improve farm productivity by delivering high quality personalized (farm-specific) agro-expert advice in timely manner to each farm at farmers door-steps w/o farmer asking question.


It was established at time when information technology was almost unknown in villages of India.

Decision Support System for Agro-technology Transfer (DSSAT)

DSSAT is software package integrating effects of soil, crop phenotype, weather & management options that allows users to ask “what if” questions & simulate results by conducting, in minutes on desktop computer, experiments that would otherwise consume significant part of agronomist’s career.

Electronic National Agriculture Market

  • eNAM for agriculture marketing can be regarded as technology which will bring social change in markets.

  • Social change in relationships & networks that work b/w buyer & seller as they exist in traditional markets will change as technology enabled eNAM is adopted in agriculture markets.

  • Early adopters of eNAM are HP, Telangana, Haryana, UP, Andhra Pradesh, MP & Gujarat.

Way Ahead

  • “National Commission on farmers” under chairmanship of Dr. M. S. Swaminathan had recommended harnessing benefits of Digital technology for improving socio-economic status of rural people by suggesting establishment of “Rural Knowledge Centres” all over country using modern Digital technology tools.

  • Role of Digital technology to enhance food security & support rural livelihoods is increasingly recognized & was officially endorsed at World Summit on Information Society (WSIS) 2003 - 2005.

Women: Driving Force of Development

  • Rural women are key agents for achieving transformational economic, environmental & social changes required for sustainable development.

  • Empowering them is crucial not only to well-being of individual families & rural communities but, also to overall economic productivity given women’s large presence in agricultural work force.

Govt. Empowerment programs for Rural Women

📝 Deen Dayal Upadhyay Antyodaya Yojana (DAY-NRLM)

  • Ajeevika is major project of Ministry of Rural Development. It focus on rural women & aims to achieve universal social mobilization by involving rural women. At least one woman member from each identified poor rural household, is to be brought under SHG network in time bound manner NRLM has devised special strategies to reach out all these vulnerable communities & help them graduate out of poverty.

  • Deen Dayal Upadhyay Grameen Kaushalya Yojana (DDU-GKY) aims to skill rural youth who are poor & provide them w/jobs having regular monthly wages or above min. wages.

  • Mahila Kisan Sashaktikaran Pariyojana (MKSP) is another component that aims to improve present status of women in Agriculture & to enhance opportunities for empowerment.

Rashtriya Mahila Kosh (RMK)

👌 Rashtriya Mahila Kosh (RMK), of Ministry of Women & Child Development, extends micro-credit to women in informal sector thru client friendly, w/o collateral & in hassle-free manner for income generation activities.

Mahila Shakti Kendra (MSK)

  • Mahila Shakti Kendra (MSK) as sub scheme under Umbrella Scheme of mission for Protection & Empowerment for Women for implementation during 2017 - 18 upto 2019 - 20 to empower rural women thru community participation.

  • MSK Scheme is envisaged to provide interface for rural women to approach govt. for availing their entitlement & for empowering them thru training & capacity building.

📝 National Repository of Information for Women (NARI)

  • Ministry of Women & Child Development, has prepared portal namely National Repository of Information for Women (NARI) that will provide citizen easy access to information on govt. schemes & initiative for women.

  • Rural women can access these schemes on their own or w/help of various frontline workers associated w/govt. schemes at ground level.

  • Portal summarizes over 350 govt. schemes.

National Nutrition Mission (NNM)

👌 To deal w/problem of malnutrition, govt. has set-up National Nutrition Mission (NNM) w/budget of Rs. 9046 cr. Aim is to achieve improvement in nutritional status of children of 0 - 6 years & pregnant & lactating women in time bound manner, during coming 3 years beginning 2017 - 18, w/defined targets.

📝 Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY)

  • PMMVY is maternity benefit program that has been made pan-India phenomenon since 31st Dec. , 2016.

  • Beneficiaries would receive cash incentive of Rs. 6000/- during pregnancy & after institutional delivery.

  • In 2015, Swadhar Greh scheme was launched to cater to primary needs of women in difficult circumstances. Setting up of shelter, food, clothing medical treatment & care are exclusively provided, meanwhile they are provided w/legal guidance to enable their readjustment in family/society.

Mahila Shakti Kendra

  • Scheme was launched in 2017 to address women’s issues at rural level wherein over 3 lakh student volunteers would be engaged in 115 most backward dist. for 3 years.

Mahila e-Haat

  • It is initiative to economically empower women thru financial inclusion. Govt. launched bilingual portal Mahila e-Haat, direct online digital marketing platform for women entrepreneurs/SHGs/NGOs in March 2016.

  • 📝 Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana – intent of scheme is to make cooking gas (LPG) available to women from families that are financially backward.

  • Main objectives of P. M. Ujjwala Yojana:

    • Enhance status of women & caring for their health.

    • Help to decrease air pollution due to use of fossil fuel.

    • Lessening serious health risks related w/cooking based on fossil fuels.

    • Reducing number of deaths due to unclean cooking fuels, which is almost 5 lakh every year in India.

    • Preventing young children from acute respiratory illness caused due to indoor air pollution by burning fossil fuels.

Unleashing Potential of North East India

  • India Will only Gain If North East Gains: 8 states namely Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim & Tripura located in north & east corner of country known as North East India/Region (NEI/NER) or 7 Sisters & 1 Brother.

Potentials to be Unleashed

Region covers area of 2,63,179 sq. km, approx. 8 % of country’s total geographical area & is home to around 3.76 % of total population country.

📝 Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA)

  • States & Areas have community-based tradition Local-self Govt.

  • Low employment generation – reasons are lack of proper planning & implementation, lack of awareness regarding benefit of program, Non-effective Panchayati Raj Institution, Hilly terrain, incompatibility of permissible works, size & density of population in states.

National Social Assistance Program (NSAP)

  • NSAP is implemented by govt. as key welfare initiative.


  • North East Region Vision 2020 observed that people in region, like those in rest of country, have vision of achieving prosperity & happiness for their children, if not for themselves.

Other Important Notes

Inclusion of more crops under Market Intervention Scheme

All agricultural & horticultural commodities for which Minimum Support Price (MSP) are not fixed & are generally perishable in nature are covered under Market Intervention Scheme (MIS).

Health Service Delivery Structure in India

  • 👌 Primary healthcare:

    • Health Sub Centres (HSC)

    • Primary Health Centre (PHC)

    • Community Health Centre (CHC)

  • 👌 Secondary level care:

    • Sub – Divisional Hospital (SDH) /Taluka Hospitals (TH)

    • District Hospital (DH)

  • 👌 Tertiary level care

    • Medical College & associated Hospitals (MC&AH)

    • Apex institutions, specially centres & referral & research centres.

Pune Village Communities open their Household Toilets to Wari Pilgrims

  • 👌 People from homes along route of famous Wari pilgrimage route in Pune of Maharashtra, are opening up their toilets for use of pilgrims during their 15-day travel, their destination being Pandharpur.

  • Palkhi or procession which is 333 year old glorious tradition of Maharashtra, observed across state began this year on 6th July & ended on 22nd July, 2018.

Community Involvement, Participation to Ensure Sustainability in Araria

  • 👌 Araria is one most backward dist. in Bihar as per various parameters.

  • It has set benchmark by crossing 50 % sanitation coverage, despite enormous challenges.

Integrated Systems for Doubling Farmer’s Income by 2022

  • 👌 Integrating Farming System (IFS) are being promoted to achieve vision of Hon’ble PM Shri Narendra Modi of “Doubling Farmers’ Income by 2022”. These Integrated Farming Systems can be classified as natural & intentional integrated systems.

  • Intentional integrated systems addresses multiple objectives of increased production, profit, cost-reduction thru recycling, family nutrition, sustainability, ecological security, employment generation, economic efficiency & social equity.

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Sustainable Rural Development: Kurukshetra September 2018 (In Hindi)

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Kurukshetra September 2018: Sustainable Rural Development

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- Published/Last Modified on: September 25, 2018


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