Liquid Water Lake in Mars and Unnati: Primary Objectives (Download PDF)

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Expected to facilitate a better understanding on the likely presence of life on Mars. A lake stretching for 20-km. An 11-member Italian team of researchers surveyed the Planum Australe region, or the southern polar plains of Mars. Use of Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) instrument. The instrument beams radar pulses down to the planet՚s surface thereby measuring how the waves reflect back to the spacecraft.

  • Giving information on the kind of materials even below the surface.
  • Found 1.5 km under the southern polar ice cap of Mars.
  • The water remains in a liquid form despite temperatures at about -68° C.

Reason Responsible for the Liquid Form

  • On the Martian surface atmospheric pressure almost a hundred times less than on Earth.
  • Could be due to the heavy presence of sodium, magnesium and calcium salts.
  • Water therefore would not be in liquid form but rather as ice or vapour.
  • Presence of water is much beneath the surface.
  • May reduce the temperature and help it retain liquid form.
  • Along with immense pressure of the ice from above lowers the freezing point.


  • Majority area of modern Mars is dry and barren.
  • Any liquid water was believed to be transitional, in short-lived pools or flowing down hillsides in the Martian summer.
  • Discovery of a large, stable, stagnant lake on Mars is significant.
  • Offers new potential targets for future missions and places.


  • UNispace Nano-satellite Assembly and Training by ISRO.
  • A capacity building programme on nanosatellite development.
  • To commemorate the 50th anniversary of the first United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE + 50) .
  • Programme will be conducted for 3 years in 3 batches.
  • Target to benefit 90 officials from 45 countries.

Primary Objectives

  • To offer a simplified and increased exposure to satellite fabrication technologies.
  • Part of the UNISPACE initiative.
  • Provide theoretical course on satellite technology.
  • Provide hands-on training to assemble.
  • Integrate and test a low cost, modular Nano satellite.

- Published/Last Modified on: March 19, 2020


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