Nipah Virus (NiV) (Download PDF)

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Zoonosis that causes disease in humans and animals, Nipah Virus Host – Fruit Bats (Pteropodidae Family, Pteropus genus), RNA virus that is part of the Paramyxovidae family. WHO list of Blueprint priority disease: 1st identified - Kampung Sungai Nipah, Malaysia in 1998 (pigs as intermediate hosts) – later no intermediate hosts.

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Nipah Virus (In English)

In this short video we will know more about Nipah virus - we will understand the host, test and treatment.

  • 2004 – humans got infected by consuming date palm sap (infected by saliva or urine of contaminated fruit bat)
  • Bats shed the virus in their excrement and secretions, but they are symptomless carriers. NiV is highly contagious among pigs and is spread by coughing.
  • Human to human transmission is also documented
  • Transmission – direct contact with infected bats, infected pigs or from other people infected with the virus
  • Contagious amongst pigs & spread by coughing

Symptoms:

  • Acute respiratory syndrome

  • Fatal encephalitis

  • Nausea

  • Vomiting

  • Convulsions

Treatment

  • Ribavirin

  • Intensive Supportive Care

NiV infection can be diagnosed together with clinical history during the acute and convalescent phase of the disease. Different tests include:

  • Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay

  • Virus isolation by cell culture

Prevention

  • Avoid close physical contact with infected people

  • Wear NH95-grade and higher masks

  • Wash hands regularly with soap

  • Avoid consuming partly eaten fruits or unpasteurized fruit juices

  • Avoid being around anima pens

  • Boil freshly collected date palm juice before consuming

  • Thoroughly wash and peel fruits before consuming

  • Maintain your and children’s personal hygiene

  • Cover your household properly

First identified as a zoonotic pathogen after an outbreak involving severe respiratory illness in pigs and encephalitic disease in humans in Malaysia and Singapore in 1998 and 1999.

Image of Geographic Distribution of Henipavirus outbreaks

Image of Geographic Distribution of Henipavirus Outbreaks

Image of Geographic Distribution of Henipavirus outbreaks

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Nipah Virus (In Hindi)

In this short video we will know more about Nipah virus - we will understand the host, test and treatment.

- Published/Last Modified on: June 15, 2018

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