Nutrition: Yojana May 2018 Summary - Part 1 (Download PDF)

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Forthcoming Issue: India on the Move. Nutrition: Key to Development - W/population about 1.2 billion as per 2011 census, India is likely to be the most populous country on this planet by 2030 w/1.6 billion people.

  • 17 % of the global population.

  • Article 47 of the Constitution of India states that “the State shall regard raising the level of nutrition & standard of living of its people & improvement in public health among its primary duties”.

  • India is home to over 40 million stunted & 17 million wasted children (Under 5 years).

  • Under nutrition is a condition resulting from inadequate intake of food or more essential nutrients resulting in deterioration of physical & mental health.

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Nutrition: Yojana May 2018 Summary (In English)

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Yojana May 2018: Nutrition

National Nutrition Mission (NNM) 👌

  • The total outlay for the nutrition mission has been set at over Rs. 9,000 cr. for a period of 3 years.

  • More than 10 cr. people are likely to be benefitted by this program.

  • NNM proposes to cover all the States & dist. in a phased manner i. e. 315 districts in 2017 - 18,235 dist. in 2018 - 19 & remaining dist. in 2019 - 20

Creating Mass Movement to Address Malnutrition

  • Under nutrition: Inability to achieve our desired human resource potential.

  • 👌 On March 8,2018; PM launched POSHAN Abhiyaan – PM’s Overarching Scheme for Holistic Nourishment from Jhunjhunu in Rajasthan. 👌

  • The program thru use of technology, targeted approach & convergence strives to reduce level of stunting, under-nutrition, anemia & low birthweight in children, also focus on adolescent girls, pregnant women & lactating mothers.

  • Aims to ensure service delivery & interventions.

  • 👌 Convergence at centre is being achieved thru formation of the National Council for Nutrition & Executive Committee for Poshan Abhiyaan.

Image of components Poshan Abhiyan

Image of Components Poshan Abhiyan

Image of components Poshan Abhiyan

Image of Some Ministries And Yojana

Image of Some Ministries and Yojana

Image of Some Ministries And Yojana

Image of Location Mapping, Mobile Phone to AWW & Six Tier sys.

Image of Location Mapping, Mobile Phone to AWW & Six Tier Sys.

Image of Location Mapping, Mobile Phone to AWW & Six Tier sys.

  • Software application, ICDS- Common application Software especially developed for this purpose enables data capture, ensures assigned service delivery

  • Problem of malnutrition include optimal Infant & Young Child Feeding (IYCF) practices, Immunization, Institutional Delivery, Early Childhood Development, Food Fortification, Deworming, access to safe drinking water & proper sanitation (WASH) , Dietary diversification.

  • Multi-pronged approach to mobilize the masses.

  • 👌 Aim is to generate a Jan Andolan towards Nutrition.

Food to Nutrition Security

  • National Nutrition Mission w/3 years budget of Rs. 9,000 cr.

  • Our Food Security Act 2013 specially mentions need for nutritional security.

Food to Nutrition Security

  • In 1986, in both lecture at FAO & in book on “Global Aspects of Food Production” need for a change in emphasis from food security to nutrition security.

  • Need for a food based approach to nutrition security & not a drug based one.

  • In area of nutrition security, it is important to look at food adequacy, protein deficiency & deficiency of micronutrients like iron, iodine, zinc, vitamin A. The Farming System for Nutrition (FSN) provides a methodology for achieving such symbiotic linkages.

National Nutrition Week

  • It will be useful to launch a National Grid of Genetic Garden of Bio fortified Plants.

  • It will help to provide agriculture remedies to major nutrition problems particularly affecting the poor.

Making National Nutrition Mission a Success

Nutrition Mission should have interactive components to make it success:

  • Overcoming under nutrition thru effective use of the provisions of the Food Security Act & taking advantage of the enlarged food basket which includes millets in addition to rice & wheat.

  • Assuring enough protein intake thru increased pulses production & increased consumption of milk & poultry products.

  • Overcoming hidden hunger caused by micronutrient malnutrition thru establishment of genetic gardens of bio fortified plants.

  • Ensuring food quality & safety thru steps for adoption of improved post-harvest management.

  • There is need W/I mission for provision of clean drinking water, sanitation, primary health care & nutrition literacy.

National Nutrition Mission

📝 National Nutrition Mission, following 5 areas need concurrent attention:

  • Overcoming calorie deficiency thru effective use of provisions of National Food Security Act 2013

  • Overcoming protein hunger thru increased production & consumption of pulses & milk & poultry products

  • Overcoming hidden hunger caused by micro nutrient deficiency thru establishment of genetic gardens of bio fortified plants & promoting Farming System for Nutrition programme.

  • Ensuring availability of clean drinking water, sanitation & primary health care.

  • Developing cadre of Community Hunger Fighters who are well versed w/art & science of malnutrition eradication.

Role of Health Services in Nutrition

  • When India became independent, 2 major nutritional problems: threat of famine & resultant acute starvation due to low food production & lack of appropriate food distribution system.

  • Article 47 of the Constitution of India states “State shall regard raising level of nutrition & standard of living of its people & improvement in public health among its primary duties”.

A Decline of Under-Nutrition

  • Pre-school children were recognized as vulnerable group prone to under-nutrition & ill health.

  • Under-nutrition in pre-school children renders them susceptible to infections; infections aggravate under-nutrition & micro-nutrient deficiencies.

  • 👌 Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) was aimed at providing food supplements to children from poor & marginalized sections to bridge the gap b/w requirement & actual dietary intake.

  • Infections were major causes of U5MR; steady decline in U5MR b/w 1970 & 2015 was due to substantial improvement in access to health services for immunization & treatment of infections in under-5 children.

Optimal Nutrition in Childhood

  • 👌 Height, weight & BMI are 3 parameters widely used for assessing nutritional status.

  • 👌 BMI Body Mass Index which is the indicator of current energy adequacy has long been accepted as indicator for assessment of nutritional status in adults. WHO standards for BMI-for-age for children became available in 2006 (0 - 5 years) & 2007 (5 - 18 years).

Elimination of Blindness

  • Poor green & yellow vegetable intake led to widespread vitamin A deficiency.

  • Studies carried out by National Institute of Nutrition showed that massive dose Vitamin A administered once in 6 months to children b/w 1 & 3 years of age, reduced xerophthalmia by 80%.

  • 👌 Massive Dose Vitamin A Supplementation (MDVAS) once every 6 months for 1 - 5 years old children was initiated in 1970; but coverage under programme was low ( < 10%)

Universal Salt Iodization

  • 👌 Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) have been recognised as public health problem in India since 1920s.

  • IDD during pregnancy was associated w/high abortion & foetal wastage rates; some infants born to these mothers suffered from cretinism & mental retardation. In adults, IDD include hypothyroidism & goiter.

  • IDD in India was thought to be problem in sub-Himalayan region. National Goitre Control Program initiated in 1962, focused on supplying iodized salt to those living in goiter belt.

  • 👌 National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme (NIDDCP) was initiated in 1992 w/goal that all salt for human consumption will be iodized to ensure universal household access to iodized salt.

  • In 2007 mandatory fortification of all salt for human consumption w/iodine was notified.

Dual Nutrition & Health Burden

  • For optimal nutrition, those w/BMI < 18.5 should gain weight so that they become normally nourished.

Conclusion

  • NCD management requires lifestyle modification & lifelong medication.

Accountability for Nutrition Outcomes

  • Nutrition is the most basic facets of human life.

  • Improving nutritional outcomes would help in controlling diseases, reduce infant & maternal mortality, empower women, break vicious intergenerational cycle of malnutrition, improve worker productivity, & even improve learning outcomes for students.

  • Overall benefits to cost ratio to be 16: 1 for low & middle-income countries.

  • Govt. works on principle of “sabka saath, sabka vikaas”.

📝 National Mission for Nutrition is Required for 4 Reasons:

  • Current efforts are fragmented.

  • Mission sets specific targets related to nutritional outcomes & timeline in which those are to be achieved.

  • Mission encompasses targeted strategy consisting of a plan of actions & interventions.

  • Nutrition mission targets behavioral change thru social awareness.

📝 What Does the Nutrition Mission Aim For?

  • According to the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) b/w 2005 - 06 to 2015 - 16: stunting in children declined from 48 to 38%, proportion of underweight children gone down from 42.5 to 35.7%, proportion of women w/low body mass index has gone down from 35.5 % to 22.9%, & anemia in women declined marginally from 55.3 % to 53%.

  • Decline in stunting in children is aimed at 2 % per annum, in comparison to about 1 % per annum achieved in the last decade.

Image of Ministry of health and family welfare

Image of Ministry of Health and Family Welfare

Image of Ministry of health and family welfare

Key Implementation Strategy

  • Outcome orientation: one of the biggest changes proposed thru nutrition strategy is to orient system towards achievements of outcomes.

  • Incentives based on outcomes

  • Data collection & monitoring: A joint ICDS & NHM mother & child protection card will be used for health, maternity & nutrition support to the mother & child.

  • Coordination b/w different programs

  • Geographical convergence: The national council would invite dist. Collectors from 10 worst-performing dist.

  • Jan Andolan

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Nutrition: Yojana May 2018 Summary (In Hindi)

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Yojana May 2018: Nutrition

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📝 implies important for Subjective Questions

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- Published/Last Modified on: May 25, 2018

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