Nutrition: Yojana May 2018 Summary - Part 3 (Download PDF)

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Stretching a Hand to the Vulnerable - Social Inclusion refers to access to favourable opportunities in society to enhance one’s life chances. Constitutional Provisions: Part III of the Indian Constitution provides for 6 Fundamental Rights for Social Inclusion. These include Right to Equality, Right to Freedom, Right against Exploitation, Right to Freedom of Religion, Cultural & Educational Rights & Right to Constitutional Remedies. These Rights are available to persons w/disabilities.

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Nutrition: Yojana May 2018 Summary (In English)

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Yojana May 2018: Nutrition

  • Article 15 (3) empowers State to make special provisions for women & children in educational institutions & employment opportunities.

  • Article 15 (4) seeks to promote educational backward classes of citizens, i. e. OBC’s Scheduled Castes & Scheduled Tribes in matters of admission of students belonging to these categories in unaided educational institutions.

  • Article 17 abolishes untouchability & its practice in any form.

  • Article 39 provides for the abolition of child labour & for equal pay for equal work for both men & women

  • Article 41 provides for Right to Work, to education, to public assistance in case of unemployment, old age, sickness & disablement & in other cases of underserved want.

  • Article 42 provides for just & humane conditions of work & for maternity relief.

  • 11th Schedule to Article 243 G says that Social Welfare including welfare of the handicapped & mentally retarded, & 12th Schedule to Article 243 W says that safeguarding Interests of Weaker Sections of Society including handicapped & mentally retarded.

Governance Structure

Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment

  • Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment implement 42 schemes for welfare of Scheduled Castes.

  • Ministry is custodian of 2 Acts, specifically aimed at curbing (i) untouchability & (ii) atrocities against SC/STs.

  • National Commission for Scheduled Castes was set up under Article 383 of Constitution in 1990, to investigate & monitor all matters relating to safeguards provide for Scheduled Castes under Constitution & all Laws in force & to inquire into specific complaints w/respect to deprivation of rights & safeguards of SCs.

  • Babu Jagjivan Ram Chhatrawas Yojana provides hostel facilities for Scheduled Caste boys & girls in middle schools, higher secondary schools, colleges & universities.

  • India established National Scheduled Castes Finance & Development Corporation to provide concessional loans to Scheduled Castes families & skill cum entrepreneurial training to the youth of target group living below double poverty line. National Safai Karmacharis Finance & Development Corporation has been established for economic empowerment of scavengers & manual scavengers.

Department for Empowerment of Persons w/Disabilities (Divyangjan)

  • Department for Empowerment of Persons w/Disabilities deals w/legislation governing different aspects of disability & welfare & empowerment of persons w/disabilities.

  • These are Rehabilitation Council of India Act 1992, Persons w/Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights & Full Participation) Act 1955 & National Trust for Welfare of Persons w/Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation & Multiple Disabilities Act 1999.

  • 3 Statutory bodies under Department: 👌 Rehabilitation Council of India- responsible for regulating training policies & programmes for various categories of professionals in area of rehabilitating & special education. 👌 Chief Commissioner for Persons w/Disabilities – statutory functionary under Act of 1955 to coordinate work of State Commissioners for persons w/disabilities. 👌 National Trust, statutory body – enables & empowers persons w/disabilities to live independently & to extend support to registered organizations providing need-based services. India has set up 6 National Institutes/Apex Level Institutes to deal w/multi-dimensional problem of disabled population in each major area of disability. National Handicapped Finance & Developed Corporation is apex level financial institution for extending credit facilities to persons w/disabilities for their economic development.

  • Accessible India campaign is nationwide flagship campaign to ensure barrier-free & conductive environment for Divyangjans all over country, launched by PM on 31 Dec. , 2015, for creating universal accessibility for persons w/Disabilities.

Ministry of Tribal Affairs

  • Ministry administers grants to states comprising of special central assistance to tribal sub-plan schemes, grants under Article 275 (1) of Constitution of India, grants for Eklavya Model Residential Schools; education grants for vocational training centers in tribal areas, establishment of ashram schools in Tribal Sub-Plan areas.

  • National Scheduled Tribes Finance & Development Corporation provides financial assistance to empower tribals for undertaking self-employment ventures. National Commission for Scheduled Tribes was established under Article 338 A of Constitution as independent body to safeguard rights of tribals.

National Policy for Older Persons

  • Govt. has constituted National Council for Older Persons to advice & aid govt. in developing policies for older persons.

Ministry of Women & Child Development

  • National Policy for Empowerment of Women lays down detailed prescription to address discrimination against women, strengthen existing institutions, provide better access to health care, equal opportunities for women’s participation in decision making & mainstreaming gender concerns in developmental processes.

  • National Commission on Women took up “Violence Free Home – Women’s Right” campaign for awareness generation in Delhi.

  • Main objectives of Scheme are to prevent gender-based sex-selective elimination, to ensure survival & protection of girl child & to ensure education & participation of girl child. Scheme seeks to improve sex ratio at birth in selected gender critical districts by 2 points a year.

  • Emphasizing that daughter is not burden, PM said that girls are bringing pride & glory to Nation excelling in several fields.

Expanding Universal Health Coverage

  • On policy front, one of significant steps has been announcement of National Health Policy 2017, after gap of 15 years, to address current & emerging challenges necessitated by changing socio-economic & epidemiological landscapes of country.

  • Preventive & promotive health, primary health care & ensuring access.

  • Other policy initiatives have been Mental Healthcare Act, 2017, HIV & AIDS (Prevention & Control) Act – 2017 & amendment of Indian Medical Council Act, 1956 for uniform entrance examination for admission to all medical seats in country. For 1st time under National Eligibility cum Entrance Test (NEET), there is uniform entrance examination.

  • Ayushman Bharat w/its 2 components viz. Comprehensive Primary Health Care (CPHC) thru 1.5 lakh Health & Wellness Centres (HWCs) & National Health Protection Mission (NHPM), huge step towards UHC. 👌 PM launched HWCs at Jangla, dist. Bijapur (Chhattisgarh) on April 14,2018 embarking India on its journey towards UHC.

  • NHPM is poised to be largest public funded health insurance scheme in world.

  • It aims to protect poorest from catastrophic healthcare spending Health insurance cover of Rs. 5,00,000/- per family/per year will be provided to 50 cr. people. This shall benefit nearly 40 % of population, covering almost all secondary & many tertiary hospitalizations.

  • Under flagship program NHM, free essential drugs & diagnostics are provided at all public facilities across 29 States/UTs thru Free Drugs & Diagnostics program.

  • 👌 Another innovative initiative is the Affordable Medicines & Reliable Implants for Treatment (AMRIT). Thru 124 AMRIT Pharmacies spreads across 22 States, more than 5200 drugs (including cardiovascular, cancer, diabetes, stents, etc. ), implants, surgical disposable & other consumables are sold at significant discount up to 50 % on market rates.

  • 👌 Pradhan Mantri National Dialysis Program (PM-NDP) has served 2,37,139 patients, conducted 22,84,353 free dialysis session thru 497 dialysis operational units/centres & 3330 total operational dialysis machines under it.

  • 👌 Pradhan Mantri Surakshit Matritva Abhiyan has helped identify more than 6 lakh high-risk pregnancies thru more than 1.16 cr. antenatal check-ups. Another new initiative has been LaQshya – ‘Labour room Quality improvement Initiative’ launched on December 11,2017. It is focused & targeted approach to strengthen key processes related to labour rooms & maternity operation theatres.

  • Singular & landmark achievement has been – India was validated for Maternal & Neonatal Tetanus Elimination (MNTE) in April 2015, much ahead of global target date of December 2015. What is perhaps noteworthy is that India’s Under-5 Mortality Rate & Maternal Mortality Ratio declined at higher pace than global average.

  • 👌 Universal Immunization Program (UIP), by launching 5 new vaccines (Measles-Rubella, Pneumococcal, Rotavirus, Inactivated Polio & Japanese Encephalitis) vaccines. Mission Indradhanush (MI) was important component of UIP & has completed its 4 phases in 528 dist.

  • 👌 To achieve target, Intensified Mission Indradhanush was launched by PM on Oct. 8,2017 at Vadnagar, Gujarat to be carried out in 121 dist. , 17 urban areas & 52 dist. of NE states (total 190 dist. / urban areas across 24 states)

  • 👌 MAA-Mother’s Absolute Affection has enhanced focus on breastfeeding. Thru Intensified Diarrhoea Control Fortnight (IDCF) to combat mortality in children due to childhood diarrhoea, more than 22.3 cr. under-5 children were reached since 2014. More than 97 cr. doses of Albendazole have been administered to children in 1 - 19 year group, since 2014 as part of National Deworming Day (NDD) to combat Soil-Transmitted Helminth (STH) infections.

  • Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram (RBSK) entails provision for child health screening & early intervention services thru early detection & management of 4 Ds i. e. Defects at birth, Diseases, Deficiencies, Development delays & free Management of 30 identified health conditions including surgery at tertiary health facilities.

  • W/high focus on adolescent health, Rashtriya Kishor Swasthya Karyakram (RKSK) was launched. Under this, 7516 Adolescent Friendly Health Clinics (AFHCs) have been established across States to provide Adolescent Friendly Health Services.

  • 👌 Mission Parivar Vikas program was launched in 2016 for increasing access to contraceptives & family planning services in 146 high fertility dist. w/key initiatives. Under this, new contraceptives are made available till Sub-Centre Level. 👌 As part of Nayi Pehel, family planning kit is provided by ASHAs to newlyweds. Saas Bahu Sammelan are held to encourage young married women & their mothers-in-law to freely discuss matters related to family planning & reproductive health.

  • Beyond Saas Bahu Sammelan, 3 new contaceptives are added to basket of family planning choices: injectable Contraceptive MPA (Medroxy Progesterone Acetate) under Antara Programme, Centch roman (Chhaya) & Progesterone Only Pills & injectable & Centchroman rolled out across country.

  • PM has announced achievement of a TB Free India by 2025.

  • 👌 As visionary step, under National AIDS Control Program (NACP), Test & Treat Policy has been rolled out. It covers all patients w/Anti Retro Viral (ARV) irrespective of CD count or clinical stage.

  • NHP 2017 clearly states tapping of IT for healthcare, & MoHFW has several IT initiatives including development of inter-operable Electronic Health Records (EHR) system, telemedicine services, public health IT solutions (Mother & Child Tracking System (MCTS) / Reproductive Child Health (RCH) application, Kilkari App, Mobile Academy, ANM on Line (ANMOL), Drugs & Vaccines Distribution Management System (DVDMS), TB Patient Monitoring System “Nikshay”, SUGAM by Central Drugs Standards Control Organisation (CDSCO) & eRaktKosh etc. & web portals & mobile applications (National Health Portal (NHP), PMSMA Portal, MeraAspataal, m Diabetes Program, India Fights Dengue App etc.

Decentralised Approach to Tackling Nutrition

  • On Sep. 20,2017, GoI commited to investing Rs. 12,000 cr. over next 3 years for improving maternal & child health & increasing cost norms of Supplementary Nutrition Program.

  • It is well recognised fact that globally, nutrition – related factors contribute to about 45 % of child deaths under age 5. India is no exception- 33 % of total disease burden was caused by maternal, neonatal & nutritional diseases.

  • Increasingly large body of evidence from epidemiology & economics has shown that mortality aside, poor nutrition in 1st 1000 days – from woman’s pregnancy to child’s second birthday – can lead to stunted growth, impaired cognitive ability, poor performance in schools & negative impact on country’s workforce development.

  • 2016 Global Nutrition Report estimated that for every 1 $ invested in nutrition could yield return of 16 dollars.

  • Requirement of holistic & comprehensive plan – w/multiple interventions ranging from increased access to health services right from adolescent stages, improved diet & supplements such as fortification, counselling, & improved sanitation.

  • Despite over 4 decades of ICDS scheme & hos t of other programmes tackling nutrition, b/w 2005 - 2015, as per 3rd & 4th round of NFHS, while % of children under 5 who were underweight decreased from 43%-36%, % of children who were wasted, increased by 1 % point, while those that were severely wasted increased by 2 % points.

  • On Sep. 20,2017, GoI committed to investing Rs. 12,000 cr. over next 3 years for improving maternal & child health & increasing cost norms of Supplementary Nutrition Program.

  • For mission to succeed, decentralized approach w/focus on 1st principles – namely 3Fs – funds, functions, & functionaries will be critical.

Flexible Financing

  • For instance, while < 17 % of children under 5 are stunted in Kerala, proportion is over 40 % in UP & MP. While dist. in Bihar & Jharkhand have highest prevalence of wasting; dist. in UP & MP topped list in terms of high levels of stunting.

Focus on Functionaries

👌 For nutrition, Triple A – AWWs, ASHAs & ANMs are key implementers, responsible for delivery of essential services on ground.

Shaping Food Consumption

  • 👌 National Food Security Act primarily focuses on providing food security via expansion of PDS.

  • Global Nutrition Report 2017, which looked at 140 countries including India, found ‘significant burdens’ of 3 imp. forms of malnutrition used as indicator of broader trends.

Public Distribution System

  • PDS in country facilitates supply of food grains & distribution of essential commodities to large number of poor people thru network of Fair Price Shops (FPSs) at subsidized price on recurring basis.

  • W/network of more than 4.9 lakh fair price shops claiming to distribute annually commodities worth more than Rs. 40,000 cr. to about 190 million families, PDS in India is perhaps largest distribution network of its type in world.

  • 👌 Major commodities distributed include wheat, rice, sugar, & kerosene.

  • Role of PDS in Shaping Household & Nutritional Security was carried out by erstwhile Independent Evaluation Office, now Development Monitoring & Evaluation Office, on request received from Ministry of Agriculture, GoI.

Motivation

  • However, since it was widely criticized for its urban bias, it was subsequently streamlined thru launch of Targeted PDS (TPDS) in June 1997, which aimed at providing very poor families access to food grains at reasonably low costs to help them improve their nutrition standards & attain food security.
  • National Food Security Act focuses on providing food security via expansion of PDS.

Coverage of TPDS

  • PDS cards are ubiquitous w/households that do not own any card declining from 19%-14 % of total households b/w 2004 - 05 & 2011 - 12.

  • 👌 Proportion of households holding Below Poverty Line (BPL) or Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY) cards increased from 36 % of all households to 42 % b/w 2004 - 05 & 2011 - 12.

  • Use of consumption-based poverty line cut-off suggested by Tendulkar Committee indicates that only 29 % of BPL cardholders are poor while 71 % are not poor. In contrast, about 13 % of APL cardholders are poor while 87 % are not poor.

Access & Use of TPDS

  • PDS use increased not just for foodgrains but also for kerosene, w/79 % of PDS cardholders purchasing kerosene from PDS shops.

Targeting Efficiency

  • Inclusion errors increased across all regions b/w 2004 - 05 & 2011 - 12 & were particularly high for Southern states. While exclusion errors are decreasing, they remain highest for marginalized groups.

National Food Security Act, 2013

  • NFSA was enacted by Govt. in year 2013 to provide for food & nutritional security in human life cycle approach, by ensuring access to adequate quantity of quality food at affordable prices to people to live a life w/dignity.

  • Country has highest number of people w/diabetes in world, & this burden has been rising over time, it is sometimes referred to as ‘diabetic capital of the world’.

Other Important Notes

Baseline Ranking Of Aspirational Districts

  • 👌 NITI Aayog launched baseline ranking for Aspirational Districts recently

  • 👌 Base on published data of 49 indicators across 5 development areas of Health & Nutrition, Education, Agriculture & Water Resources, Financial Inclusion & Skill Development, & Basic Infrastructure.

  • 👌 ‘Transformation of Aspirational Districts’ programme aims to quickly & effectively transforms some of most underdeveloped dist. of country.

  • Convergence (of Central & State Schemes), Collaboration (of Central, State level ‘Prabhari’ Officers & District Collectors), & Competition among dist. driven by Mass Movement or Jan Andolan.

The Mantra of 3R – Reduce, Reuse & Recycle – Is At The Heart Of Any Vision Towards The Sustainable Development Of Mankind

  • The 8th Regional 3R Forum in Asia & Pacific was held at Indore in April 2018 w/overall theme of “Achieving Clean Water, Clean Land & Clean Air thru 3R & Resource Efficiency – 21st Century Vision for Asia-Pacific Communities”.

  • In a message to participants of ‘8th Regional 3R Forum in Asia & Pacific’, PM said, “mantra of 3R – Reduce, Reuse, & Recycle” is at the heart of any vision towards the sustainable development of mankind. All stakeholders – producers, consumers & State alike must adhere to this golden principle, which can contribute significantly in solving twin challenges of waste management as well as sustainable development.

The Partnership for Maternal, Newborn & Child Health

  • Partnership was formed in Sep. 2005, bringing together 80 members from 3 organizations, which included Partnership for Safe Motherhood & Newborn Health, Healthy Newborn Partnership & Child Survival Partnership, w/mandate to strengthen alignment & consensus building to support achievement of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), especially MDGs 4 & 5, calling for reduction of under 5 child mortality & maternal mortality.

Vision & Mission

Partnership concentrates on its core strengths – alignment, analysis, advocacy, & accountability. These 4 ‘A’s are to contribute to Every Woman Every Child Movement & provide support to all partners to work together to achieve full range of targets for Global Strategy by 2030 w/priority focus on targets. Targets include –

  • Reduce global maternal mortality to 70 or fewer deaths per 100,000 live births

  • Reduce newborn mortality in every country to 12 or fewer deaths per 1,000 live births

  • Reduce under-5 mortality in every country to 25 or fewer deaths per 1,000 live births

  • Achieve universal access to sexual & reproductive health & reproductive rights

  • Ensure at least 75 % of demand for family planning is satisfied w/modern contraceptives.

Beneficiaries of Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY) Crosses 22 lakhs

Objectives of the scheme are:

  • Providing partial compensation for wage loss in terms of cash incentives so that woman can take adequate rest before & after delivery of 1st living child

  • Cash incentives provide would lead to improved health seeking behavior amongst Pregnant Women & Lactating Mothers

1stMeeting Of the ‘NITI Forum for North East’

  • 👌 Development projects in NER will be based on concept of “HIRA” (Highways, Inland Waterways, Railways & Airways)

  • Developed thru 5 Mission Mode projects in a time-bound manner.

Boost for Development Projects in North-East

Schemes of Ministry of Development of North East Region (DoNER) for continuation till March, 2020:

  • 👌 Under Schemes of NEC-Special Development Projects, w/existing funding pattern for ongoing projects & on 100 % Central funding for new projects

  • 👌 For other projects funded by NEC-both Revenue & Capital – as 100 % Central funding basis, to continue w/existing pattern

  • 👌 Extension of 100 % centrally funded North Eastern Road Sector Development Scheme (NERSDS)

  • 👌 Transfer to NEC for implementation, Non-Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR-C)

  • 👌 Proposal to ensure optimization of resources thru convergence of efforts of various Ministries/Departments.

Gram Swaraj Abhiyan launched in 8 villages along LOC in Rajouri – Jammu & Kashmir

  • 👌 During B. R. Ambedkar Jayanti celebrations being held from 14th April – 5th May, 2018 in Jammu & Kashmir, dist. administration of Rajouri has launched Gram Swaraj Abhiyan in dist. where under different activities have been started in 8 targeted border villages in Nowshera from April 15,2018. Activities have been started in Sariya, Khamba, Bajnowa, Nonial, Hanjana Thakra, Lam, Rajpur kamila & Qila Darhal villages.

  • Department has also been asked to identify SC students for pre & post matric scholarships.

Swachh Bharat Gramin Confirms 93 % Usage of Toilets

  • 👌 Over 6.5 cr. toilets have been built across rural India under Mission. Over 3.38 lakh villages & 338 dist. have een declared ODF, along w/9 ODF States & 3 UTs, namely Sikkim, HP, Kerala, Haryana, Uttarakhand, Gujarat, AP, Chhattisgarh, Meghalaya, Chandigarh, Daman &Diu & Dadra & Nagar Haveli.

PM at DefExpo 2018

  • Companies including Lockheed Martin, Boeing (USA), Saab (Sweden), Airbus, Rafael (France), Rosonboron Exports, United Shipbuilding (Russia), BAE Systems (UK), Sibat (Israel), Wartsila (Finland), Rhode & Schwarz (Germany)
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Nutrition: Yojana May 2018 Summary (In Hindi)

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Yojana May 2018: Nutrition

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- Published/Last Modified on: May 25, 2018

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