Ocean Observation Systems (Download PDF)


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The Ministry of Earth Sciences implements Ocean Observations System programs since 1996 to acquire real-time, time series data on surface meteorological and upper oceanographic parameters from the Indian seas including from the Indian Ocean Region.

Image of Ocean Observation Systems

Image of Ocean Observation Systems

Image of Ocean Observation Systems

  • Ocean observation systems acquire specific ocean parameters on different spatial and temporal scales.
  • The equipment is of two types - drifters and moored. Examples include moored buoys, drifters, current meters, wave rider buoys, Cargo floats, tide gauges, coastal radars, and acoustic doppler current profilers (ADCP)
  • All the systems except Tide gauges and coastal Radar are deployed in the EEZ of India
  • Ocean observing systems primarily deployed, operated and maintained by four organizations:

    • National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT), Chennai
    • National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Goa
    • Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS), Hyderabad
    • Survey of India, Dehradun.


  • Accurate measurements of ocean parameters is used for
  • Research
  • Issue of issue of early warning to tsunami and storm surges
  • Ocean-atmospheric modelling
  • Validation of satellite data.

Moored Buoy Network

Image shows the status of Global Drifter Array

Image Shows the Status of Global Drifter Array

Image shows the status of Global Drifter Array

  • Most important kind of ocean observing system
  • It is a set of buoys at fixed locations in the Exclusive Economic Zone of India (EEZ) for obtaining long-term data.
  • Buoys capable of collecting data on 76 parameters and transmitting in real time through satellites.
  • Moored buoys network augmented to 19 buoy network, deployed in the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal.

- Published/Last Modified on: August 21, 2017


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