Ockhi Cyclone & Naming of Tropical Cyclones in North Indian Ocean

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Next Week! ! Blue Economy vs. Ocean Economy. Tropical Cyclone: What is Tropical Cyclone? - Organised convection or thunderstorm activity. Winds at low levels. Circulates in either anti-clockwise (in the northern hemisphere) or clockwise (in the southern hemisphere) direction.

Naming of Tropical Cyclones & Ockhi Cyclone (Current Affairs/GS 2017 - 18) - WW. 49 (in English)

Tropical Cyclone

Cyclones, Formation & Its 2 Types
  • From the centre of a cyclonic storm, pressure increases outwards with the pressure gradient giving intensity and determining the strength of winds.

Prerequisites

  • Source of warm, moist air derived from tropical oceans with sea surface temperature normally near to or in excess of 27 °C
  • Winds near the ocean surface blowing from different directions converging and causing air to rise and storm clouds to form
  • Winds which do not vary greatly with height - known as low wind shear. This allows the storm clouds to rise vertically to high levels;
  • Coriolis force/spin induced by the rotation of the Earth. Depression StormCycloneSuper Cyclone

7 Classes of IMD Cyclone Classification

Table Contain Shows the 7 Classes of IMD Cyclone Classification
Type of DisturbancesAssociated Wind Speed in the Circulation
Low pressure AreaLess than 17 knots (< 31 kmph)
Depression17 to 27 knots (31 to 49 kmph)
Deep Depression28 to 33 knots (50 to 61 kmph)
Cyclonic Storm34 to 47 knots (62 to 88 kmph)
Severe Cyclonic Storm48 to 63 knots (89 to 118 kmph)
Very Severe Cyclonic Storm64 to 119 knots (119 to 221 kmph)
Super Cyclonic Storm119 knots and above (221 kmph and above)

Facts on Cyclones in India

  • 10 % of world՚s tropical cyclone in this region
  • Cause loss of 2 % to GDP & 12 % to central govt. revenue
  • 13 coastal states/UTs encompassing 84 coastal districts which are affected by cyclones
  • 4 States (Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal) and one UT (Pondicherry) on the East Coast and One State (Gujarat) on the West Coast are more vulnerable to cyclone disasters
  • Primary peak in November and secondary peak in May
Cyclone Prone Area
  • 1864 - 2 severe cyclone in India (one at Kolkata & other at Machilipatnam)
  • 1865- Kolkata - 1st port with storm warning system - it extended to all ports by 1886
  • 1969 - Cyclone Distress Mitigation Committee for Andhra Pradesh & later for Odisha and West Bengal
  • Storming warning center at Visakhapatnam in 1974 & Ahmedabad in 1988
Cyclone Warning Organisational Structure

Naming of Cyclones

  • Names were first used in World War II and were subsequently adopted by all regions. In most regions pre-determined alphabetic lists of alternating male and female names are used. However, in the north-west Pacific the majority of names used are not personal names. While there are a few male and female names, majority are names of flowers, animals, birds, trees, foods or descriptive adjectives.
  • World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) & United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) started the tropical cyclone naming system in 2000. Provides ease of communication between forecasters and the general public regarding forecasts, watches, and warnings.
  • Cyclones worldwide are named by 9 regions - North Atlantic, Eastern North Pacific, Central North Pacific, Western North Pacific, North Indian Ocean, South West Indian Ocean, Australian, Southern Pacific, South Atlantic.
  • Cyclones in the North Indian Ocean basin are named by the IMD & first tropical cyclone was named in 2004 as Onil (given by Bangladesh) .
  • Eight north Indian Ocean countries - Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Myanmar, Oman, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand, gave eight names each which was combined into a list of 64 names. One name from each country is picked in an order to name the cyclones.
  • Last storm Mora that caused severe flooding across Northeast India in May was named by Thailand. Mora is the name of one of the healing stones and also means star of the sea.

Next Cyclone Will be Named Sagar - A Name Given by India

Table Contain Shows the Next Cyclone Named Sagar
IIIIIIIV
Contributed byNameNameNameName
BangladeshOnilOgni (2006)Nisha (2008)Giri
IndiaAgni (2004)AkashBijliJal (2010)
MaldivesHibaruGonuAilaKeila
MyanmarPyarrYemyinPhyanThane (2011)
OmanBaazSidr (2007)Ward (2009)Murjan
PakistanFanoos (2005)NargisLailaNilam (2012)
Sri LankaMalaRashmiBanduMahasen
ThailandMukdaKhai-MukPhetPhailin
VVIVIIVIII
Contributed byNameNameNameName
BangladeshHelenChapalaOckhiFani
IndiaLehar (2013)MeghSagarVayu
MaldivesMadiRoanuMekunuHikaa
MyanmarNa-naukKyantDayeKyarr
OmanHudhudNadaLubanMaha
PakistanNilofarVardahTitliBulbul
Sri LankaPriyaAsiriGigumSoba
ThailandKomenMoraPhethaiAmphan

Ockhi Cyclone

Ockhi Cyclone
  • Originated near Sri Lanka
  • Caused by the remnant energy of Tropical Storm Kirogi over the Gulf of Thailand - drifted west and was unable to organize
  • It was classified as Tropical Cyclone 03B and IMD upgraded the storm to a Deep Depression, and soon afterwards to Cyclonic Storm Ockhi.
  • Intensified from severe to very severe and back to severe
  • Arabian Sea surface temperatures of 31° C (89° F) and decreasing wind shear caused further strengthening- eye became visible on satellite imagery and JTWC upgraded the storm to Category 3-equivalent cyclone
  • Increasing vertical wind shear along with a deep-layered subtropical ridge to the east steered it to north northeast and dry air intrusion from the west gradually weakened the system

World Categories for Cyclones

  • Joint Typhoon Warning Centre (JTWC) is the U. S. Department of Defence agency
Table Contain Shows the World Categories for Cyclones
Beaufort scale1-minute sustained winds10-minute sustained windsNE Pacific & N Atlantic NHC/CPHCNW Pacific JTWCNW Pacific JMAN Indian Ocean IMDSW Indian Ocean MFAustralia & S Pacific BOM/FMS
0 - 7< 32 knots (37 mph; 59 km/h)< 28 knots (32 mph; 52 km/h)Tropical DepressionTropical DepressionTropical DepressionDepressionZone of Disturbed WeatherTropical Disturbance Tropical Depression Tropical Low
733 knots (38 mph; 61 km/h)28 - 29 knots (32 - 33 mph; 52 - 54 km/h)Deep DepressionTropical Disturbance
834 - 37 knots (39 - 43 mph; 63 - 69 km/h)30 - 33 knots (35 - 38 mph; 56 - 61 km/h)Tropical StormTropical StormTropical Depression
9 - 1038 - 54 knots (44 - 62 mph; 70 - 100 km/h)34 - 47 knots (39 - 54 mph; 63 - 87 km/h)Tropical StormCyclonic StormModerate Tropical StormCategory 1 tropical cyclone
1155 - 63 knots (63 - 72 mph; 102 - 117 km/h)48 - 55 knots (55 - 63 mph; 89 - 102 km/h)Severe Tropical StormSevere Cyclonic StormSevere Tropical StormCategory 2 tropical cyclone
12 +64 - 71 knots (74 - 82 mph; 119 - 131 km/h)56 - 63 knots (64 - 72 mph; 104 - 117 km/h)Category 1 hurricaneTyphoon
72 - 82 knots (83 - 94 mph; 133 - 152 km/h)64 - 72 knots (74 - 83 mph; 119 - 133 km/h)TyphoonVery Severe Cyclonic StormTropical CycloneCategory 3 severe tropical cyclone
83 - 95 knots (96 - 109 mph; 154 - 176 km/h)73 - 83 knots (84 - 96 mph; 135 - 154 km/h)Category 2 hurricane
96 - 97 knots (110 - 112 mph; 178 - 180 km/h)84 - 85 knots (97 - 98 mph; 156 - 157 km/h)Category 3 major hurricane
98 - 112 knots (113 - 129 mph; 181 - 207 km/h)86 - 98 knots (99 - 113 mph; 159 - 181 km/h)Extremely Severe Cyclonic StormIntense Tropical CycloneCategory 4 severe tropical cyclone
113 - 122 knots (130 - 140 mph; 209 - 226 km/h)99 - 107 knots (114 - 123 mph; 183 - 198 km/h)Category 4 major hurricane
123 - 129 knots (142 - 148 mph; 228 - 239 km/h)108 - 113 knots (124 - 130 mph; 200 - 209 km/h)Category 5 severe tropical cyclone
130 - 136 knots (150 - 157 mph; 241 - 252 km/h)114 - 119 knots (131 - 137 mph; 211 - 220 km/h)Super TyphoonSuper Cyclonic StormVery Intense Tropical Cyclone
> 137 knots (158 mph; 254 km/h)> 120 knots (140 mph; 220 km/h)Category 5 major hurricane

Destruction by Cyclones

  • Strong Wind/Squall
  • Torrential rain
  • Inland flooding
  • Storm surge - abnormal rise in sea level

Benefits of Cyclone

  • Relief from Drought
  • Carry away heat
  • Maintain stable and warm temperature throughout

Management

  • Structural Factors
  1. Construction of cyclone shelters
  2. Construction of cyclone resistant buildings, road links, culverts, bridges, canals, drains, saline embankments
  3. Construction of surface water tanks, communication and power transmission networks
  • Non-structural Factors
  1. Early warning dissemination systems
  2. Management of coastal zones
  3. Awareness generation and disaster risk management
  4. Capacity building of all the stakeholders involved

Tackled on State to State basis under National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project (NCRMP) being implemented through World Bank Assistance.

Focus Areas in News (Week 49 - 2017) !

  • Net neutrality
  • Surface-to-air missile Akash
  • Who are Kapu?
  • Chandrayaan-2
  • 📝 What is International Maritime Organization and Its Main Roles? Define categories of membership of IMO.
  • Chabbar Port
  • Ockhi Cyclone strikes India 📹

Forthcoming Lectures

  • International Court of Justice
  • Urban Waste Management
  • Insolvency & Bankruptcy Code
  • NDMA Guidelines
  • Bharatmala Pariyojana
Naming of Tropical Cyclones & Ockhi Cyclone (Current Affairs/GS 2017 - 18) - WW. 49 (in Hindi)

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