Open Access (DTE 16 to 30 November 2020) (Download PDF)

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Open Access

PLOS - Harold Varmus, Patrick Brown and Michael Eisen set up the Public Library of Science (PLOS) .

  • OA is a movement that seeks to make academic information contained in science journals and platforms freely available online immediately after publication. That means there are no financial, legal, or technical barriers in accessing such intellectual property.
  • In the OA system, governments and universities or the scientists and the scholars pay to have their research published. Thereafter, it becomes free to all.
  • OA took off in 2000 after Nobel Prize winner Harold Varmus, along with Patrick Brown and Michael Eisen, set up the Public Library of Science, now known only by its acronym PLOS, to provide “the full contents of the published record of research and scholarly discourse in medicine and the life sciences in a freely accessible, fully searchable, interlinked form.”
  • A fundamental reason is publishing costs. These have merely simply shifted from subscriptions paid mostly by university libraries to fees charged to authors as article-processing charges or APCs.
The Dark Matter

The Dark Matter

  • Dark matter attracts everything through gravity; it competes with the equally mysterious dark energy that pulls apart everything in the Universe
  • Dark energy, which constitutes 68 per cent of the Universe, is also the most plausible cause for the observed accelerated expansion of the Universe. This means that all the stars, planets, and other celestial bodies — visible to us — make up only 5 per cent of the Universe
  • Dar matter՚s existence can be proved only by gravitational pull on other matter
  • Another place scientist has been looking is deep under the Earth՚s surface where they have been detecting possible particles that could make up dark matter in Xenon tanks, the largest propellant tank made by humans — and even in rocks
  • Two candidates for such particles are the weakly interacting massive particles (WIPS) and axions — a hypothetical elementary particle. In case of Xenon tanks, scientists looked for collisions between WIPS and the central nucleus of the chemically-inert Xenon atoms
  • Xenon1T detector — located under Gran Sasso mountain in Italy — might have found axions, instead of wips. They found an excess of collisions of particles with electrons in the Xenon tank much more than what should be expected - electronic collisions might be coming from Tritium contamination or a new unknown behavior of neutrinos
  • Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) in the US sensed gravitational waves for the first-time ever. The waves came from the collision of an odd pair of black holes that weighed around 30 times the mass of the Sun - predict there were a lot blacker holes than previously expected; and, these would occur in binary pairs spiraling ever so close, and finally merging into each other
  • Latest - discovery of excessive presence of dark matter in the spiral galaxy NGC 5585 on September 21,2020, by the Hubble Space Telescope
  • Whereas the central parts of galaxies are expected to have a divergent dark matter density (density cusp) , observations indicate that in many galaxies the central dark matter density does not diverge but reaches a constant value, showing a constant density core. It was suggested that the deficiency in dark matter may be the result of scatterings among dark matter particles or a gravitational kick from ordinary matter.
Domiasiat in Meghalaya
  • Domiasiat in Meghalaya՚s West Khasi Hills is amongst the India՚s biggest uranium deposits.
  • Tree tomato (tamarillo) or Solanum betaceum which has its origin in South America got GI tag in Nagaland in 2015 in Kohima, Wokha, Zunheboto, Kiphire, Tuensang, Mon and Phek. It is a small, evergreen tree with heart-shaped leaves and grows to about 3 meters. The fruits appear when the tree is around three years old and are distinctly egg-shaped. The tree tomato is locally known as sei bangenuo or khwüdi and the North Eastern Regional Agricultural Marketing Corporation Limited. Tomatoes can be stored for long even at room temperature. Has high in pectin fiber which is a natural preservative as high as 5 per cent, which is higher than apples (1.0 - 1.5 per cent) , apricots (1.0 per cent) , cherries (0.4 per cent) , oranges (0.5 - 3.5 per cent) and carrots (1.4 per cent) . It is also rich in antioxidants, vitamins A and C, and anexcellent source of calcium, iron, potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium. In New Zealand, tamarillos were promoted during World War II when import of fruits such as bananas and oranges was not possible. This was to ensure that people got adequate vitamins. Before the kiwifruit boom of the 1960s, more hectarage was devoted to tamarillos than to the kiwifruit.
  • Nagaland also has the GI tag for Naga King Chilli (raja mirchi)

- Published/Last Modified on: March 23, 2021

Science/Technology, Down-to-Earth, Space/ISRO

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