Panchsheel Agreement Between Indian and China (Important) (Download PDF)


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Historically, India and China have had relations for more than 2,000 years, but the modern relationship began in 1950 when India was among the first countries to end formal ties with the Republic of China (Taiwan) and recognize the PRC as the legitimate government of Mainland China.

Image of Panchsheel Agreement

Image of Panchsheel Agreement

Image of Panchsheel Agreement

The Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence

Enunciated in preamble to the “Agreement on trade between Tibet Region of China and India”, signed in Peking on 29 April 1954:

  • Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty.
  • Mutual non-aggression.
  • Mutual non-interference in each other’s internal affairs.
  • Equality and cooperation for mutual benefit.
  • Peaceful co-existence.

Importance and History

  • Emphasized by Jawaharlal Nehru (PM), in Asian Prime Ministers Conference in Colombo
  • Five principles subsequently incorporated in a statement of ten principles issued in April 1955 at Asian-African Conference in Bandung, Indonesia.
  • Originated from five principles of the Indonesian state proclaimed by Sukarno, the Indonesian nationalist leader in June 1945 and subsequently Indonesia became independent in 1949.
  • The same Five Principles formed the basis of the Non-Aligned Movement, established in Belgrade, Yugoslavia in 1961.
  • Put at start of negotiations in Delhi from December 1953 to April 1954 on disputed territories of Aksai Chin (China calls South Tibet and India Arunachal Pradesh).
  • Nepal and India call it as the Panchsheel Treaty
  • Considered to be bedrock of relationship between India and the People’s Republic of China (PRC).
  • Codification in treaty was done in 1954.

- Published/Last Modified on: September 6, 2017

International Relations/Organizations

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