Paris Climate Summit - Developments and Highlights (Download PDF)


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United Nation Climate change conference 2015 (COP 21 on COP 11) was held in Le Bourget, Paris from November 30. It was 21st yearly session of conference of parties from 1992 and 11th session for the meeting of the Parties from 1997.

Understanding Climate Change

  • The change continues for a long period of time in the statistical distribution of weather patterns is called Climate change.
  • The change in average weather conditions or in the time variation of weather around longer-term average conditions is also referred to as Climate change.
  • Biotic processes, variations in solar radiation received by Earth, plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions are the factors which are the reasons behind Climate Change. And also some human activities are significant causes of recent climate change.

Carbon tax

  • A carbon tax is lived on carbon content of fuels.
  • Carbon is exists in every hydrocarbon fuel like coal, petroleum, natural gas etc. and it will released as carbon dioxide when hydrocarbon are burnt.
  • CO2 is higher degree of temperature which causes “greenhouse” gas which will have negative impact on climate system.
  • Carbon taxes are a cost-effective method for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
  • It helps to deal with the greenhouse gases with lower cost to finish it.
  • Many countries have adopted carbon taxes which are related to carbon content.

Objectives of COP 21

  • COP 21 is conducted in Paris in which 196 countries has participated for sign a new climate change agreement.
  • The main aim is to limit warming by 2 degrees Celsius or 3.6F above pre-industrial levels which is dangerous threshold.
  • The average global temperature has already increased up to 1 degrees Celsius from 1880. And approximately 0.6 degrees Celsius of this has arisen in the past three years.

In following points are main objectives behind COP 21:

  • Ambitious action before and after 2020
  • A strong legal framework and clear rules
  • A central role for equity
  • A long term approach
  • Public finance for adaptation and the low carbon transition
  • A framework for action on deforestation and land use
  • Clear links to the 2015 Sustainable Development Goals

Highlights of COP 21

This was the biggest event ever from 1992.196 countries have participated in COP 21.

And the key points of COP 21 are:

  • Limits: the UN has set up a goal at 2 degrees Celsius pre-industrial level for limiting global warming by the end of this century, but many countries are suggested to set goal up to 1.5 degrees Celsius.
  • Justice: the Developing countries say developed (industrialized) countries must have to try to cut releases of CO2 which causes climate as much as possible. But the developed countries claim that every countries have to participate equal to reach the 2C (degrees Celsius) target.
  • Money: In the 2009 UN climate conference Copenhagen it was decided that rich economic countries will provide $100 billion for financial support to the countries who are not economically strong from 2020 to develop technology and build infrastructure to cut emissions.

Butfrom where that money will come and how it will be distributed is still not properly decided.

India’s Participation

  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi demands that “climate justice”- which means that rich nations should reduce their carbon releases even as India and others continue. But this will be valuable if all countries recognize it.
  • India can’t accept a hard limit on emissions because it’s still trying to lift hundreds of millions of Indians, more than 20 % of whom lack electricity out of poverty.
  • Western nations are most responsible for the greenhouse gases in atmosphere; because they have 10 % more release then average of India. So there is a demand for “Fair share” (refer below)
  • From all of the nations only China agrees to have committed to doing more than its fair share.
  • India has announced that up to 2013 it will try to achieve around 40 % cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel-based energy resources.
  • It has also assured to control its greenhouse gas emissions up to 35 % from the 2005 level.

Fair share for emissions in 2025 and 2030

  • “Fair share” for emissions in 2025 and 2030 explains how their respective climate plans (INDCs) perform related to different fair share effort sharing models.
  • Indian Prime Minister Mr. Modi demanded Fair share. According to this, the nations who has more emissions due to industrialization, they have to put in effort more than the developing nation to match the limits up to 2C (degrees Celsius). It will be fair enough otherwise developing nation will not able to grow more. Also developing nations do not much affect atmosphere compared to developed nations.

Summing Up

  • Contribution for climate change every country must to contribute according to their ratio of emission.
  • As the limit decided up to 2C (degrees Celsius) to achieve this has different limits and time periods for every countries based on their emission. This will make sure that the growth of country will not stop.

- Riddhi Patel

- Published/Last Modified on: December 7, 2015


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