Planning and Designing Sustainable and Clean Urban Mobility (Download PDF)

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Lewis Mamfort, the great American urban architect and historian, saod, “Building more roads to prevent congestion is like a fat man loosening his belt to prevent obesity. ” Mr. Enrique Penelosa, the present mayor of Bogota, said, “A developed country is not where the poor use cars but where the rich use public transport. ”

Image of Themes of Interventions

Image of Themes of Interventions

Image of Themes of Interventions

Growing Urbanization and Motorized Travel in India

  • Urban sector’s share of country’s GDP is expected to increase from its current 66 percent to 75 percent by 2031

  • There is an increased focus on planning and design for sustainable and clean urban mobility with urbanization one of the realities of the 21st Century, called the urban century.

  • Unplanned urbanization lead to urban sprawl and thus generating even higher demand for motorized travel.

  • Despite the increasing level of urban mobility infrastructure, access to places, activities and services is becoming increasingly difficult in the urban areas

  • 90 % of the global population growth will take place in the cities already struggling to meet the increasing demand for investment in transport systems.

Problems with Urban Transport

  • 2011 Census show that urbanization in India is gaining momentum where every third person is living in urban areas but current urbanization patterns are causing unprecedented challenges to urban mobility systems.

  • Urban transport accounts for about 25 % of the greenhouse gases worldwide and is a major cause of local air and noise pollution

  • Traffic congestion is responsible for significant economic and productivity costs for commuters and transporters.

Progress in India

  • Metro rail has seen a rapid growth in many cities like Delhi

  • Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) has seen a phenomenal growth with around 250 kms operational and around 250 kilometers under construction in various cities.

  • Many cities promote Non-Motorized Transport infrastructure for walking and bicycle as last mile connectivity for well-established public transport systems but also for health.

  • Hyderabad Metro Rail Project on completion will become the World’s largest Metro Rail Project implemented in Public Private Partnership mode.

Encouraging Public Transport

  • Mobility is not only a transport infrastructure and services but also overcomes social, economic, political and physical constraints of movements.

  • Mobility as an entitlement puts focus on people- removing obstacles preventing people from reaching destinations.

Need of Public Transport

  • Private motorisation will exist, but providing an affordable, comfortable, reliable and safe public transport reduces demand of private motorised vehicles.

  • Globally trips to work made in the world are around 30 % on public transport.

  • Average share of public transport in Indian in 2011 was 30%- reducing to 22 % by 2021.

  • The lack of affordable and accessible public transport systems lead to the proliferation of informal operators, such as private minibus and microbus services- not only unsafe but also illegal in many cases.

  • Unfortunately in some cities, informal carriers are the only forms of public transport available.

  • High capacity public transport systems reduce negative externalities like air and noise pollution, accidents and greenhouse gas emissions and provide inclusive access to low income groups.

Aspects of Holistic Urban Public Transport

Last Mile Connectivity: For high capacity public it should provide the last mile connectivity for reaching the metro station or the bus stop- this would make it less likely for promoter to use his personal vehicle.

  • Non-Motorized Transport: Non-Motorized Transport infrastructure for walking and bicycle could provide last mile connectivity- development of pedestrian pathways and dedicated cycle tracks would promote healthy lifestyle, combat diabetes & obesity and reduce pollution.

  • Intermodal Integration: This may include joint (transfer) stations, coordinated scheduling, joint fares, single ticket, or common mobility card and combined public information activities. Integration can occur at three levels namely physical, operational and fare integration. Physical integration has close proximity of stations facilitating direct connection from one mode to another usually including transfer facility at stations. Cities in Western Europe took lead in inter modal integration especially between public and non-motorized transport. Kochi metro has introduced a common mobility card, which can be used in the metro, bus as well as in the water transport system. Metro systems like Bangalore metro, Nagpur Metro &Lucknow metro are also adopting similar common mobility card.

  • Integration of Land Use and Transport Planning: Sustainable transportation system must organize urban space to reduce the need for travel and the length of travel distance. Neglecting connection between land use and mobility creates urban sprawl. One good strategy for development is Transit Oriented Development (TOD).

  • Transit Oriented Development (TOD) : Transit Oriented Development emphasizes mixed and dense development around the high capacity public transport stations. By concentrating pedestrian oriented development around the metro or BRT stations, residents are more likely to catch a metro or a bus for out-of-neighborhood trips and walk or bicycle for within the neighborhood trips. Integrating public transport systems and the built environment makes both the public transport system and the city successful. National Transit Oriented Development Policy can be used to formulate city specific TOD policy. With the increasing metro rail and BRT systems, cities should be encouraged to adopt the TOD policy.

  • Innovative Financing and Land Value Capture: Investment requirements in high capacity Public Transport Systems and large gap in demand and capacity necessitates the possibility of innovative means of financing- Issuance of bonds and financing of one corridor through land value capture by Bangalore metro are examples. The Land Value Capture Policy issued by the Government can be adopted by various agencies.

  • Public Private Partnership: Public Private Partnership (PPP) model for development and implementation of urban transport projects leverages both public and private resources and expertise. For example- metro rail or other high capacity public transport systems of Bangkok, Kuala Lumpur, Manila, Buenos Aires, Rio de Janeiro, Singapore, Hong Kong, and London have used PPP model.

  • Clean Fuels: Many of the environmental challenges in the urban transport sector are rooted in its reliance on the non-renewable fossil fuel to propel private motor vehicles. There is a need to initiating a shift to clean fuels, retiring old polluting vehicles, strengthening mass transportation, and promoting use of electric vehicles, ensuring parking spaces before registering a car at-least in large metro cities.

- Published/Last Modified on: December 3, 2017

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