Pollution & Health - Lancet Commission Report, Delhi Smog and AQI - (Part 2) (Download PDF)

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Next Week! ! Rohingya Crisis & State of Stateless People. Pollution-related deaths (92%) occur in low- and middle-income countries, and in rapidly industrialising countries (such as India, Pakistan, China, Bangladesh, Madagascar and Kenya).

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Lancet Commission on Pollution & Health; Great Smog of Delhi (Current Affairs 2017 - 18) (In - English)

Majority of the news is mentioning the Delhi incidence as “SMOG”, smog is however associated with ground level ozone formation and Sulphur and nitrous oxides.

Image of Pareto principle

Image of Pareto Principle

Image of Pareto principle

Stages of Development

  • Water pollution and household air pollution are more common in early stages of industrial development 👌- higher rates of pneumonia and diarrhoeal diseases in low- and middle-income countries
  • In higher stages of industrial development 👌- ambient air pollution (including ozone), chemical, occupational pollution and soil pollution, have increased from 4.3 million (9.2%) in 1990 to 5.5 million (10.2%) in 2015

Welfare losses due to pollution cost more than US $4.6 trillion each year or around 6.2 % of global economic output. 👌

Pollution-related diseases reduce GDP in low- to middle-income countries by up to 2 % per year & up to 7 % of health spending in heavily polluted, rapidly developing middle-income countries goes to care for people made sick by pollution

Cost on national budgets - 1.3 % GDP in low-income countries, 0.5 % GDP in high-income countries & 0.13 % GDP globally

Low-income countries pay 8.3 % of their gross national income to pollution-related death and disease, while high-income countries pay 4.5%

Health impacts of many chemicals are not known – more than 1.4 lakh new chemicals since 1950

👌Fossil fuel combustion in higher-income countries and the burning of biomass in lower-income countries accounts for 85 % of airborne particulate pollution and is a major source of greenhouse gases and other pollutants that drive climate change

Common causes (pollution) - heart disease, stroke, lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Lancet Commission

  • 👌Lancet Commission is an initiative of which of the following organizations?
  • Commission on Pollution and Health is an initiative of The Lancet (world’s most prestigious and widely read medical journals), Global Alliance on Health and Pollution (GAHP), Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, with UN Environment, UN Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), & World Bank
  • 👌Which of the following is not correct? (NONE)
  1. Pollution is strongly linked to poverty & kills poor & vulnerable
  2. Pollution Is Closely Tied To Climate Change and Biodiversity
  3. Pollution Is Neglected By Funding Agencies Worldwide
  4. Cost of Inaction Is High, While Solutions Can Yield Economic Gains

👌 Environmental injustice violates human rights - Roma people being placed in refugee camps in an area polluted by toxic remains from a lead mine in Kosovo, to higher levels of ambient air pollution in disadvantaged areas of New York due to high numbers of local bus depots

  • Pollution, poverty, poor health, and social injustice are deeply intertwined
  • Major CO2 emitters are coal fired plants, chemical producers, mining operations and vehicles
  • Pollution controls are feasible, cost-effective and replicable. The most effective strategies control pollution at its source. Remove lead from gasoline (IQ and productivity of Americans has increased & brought $200 billion to American economy each year since 1980), control industrial discharges to air and water & replace highly toxic pesticides by safer substitutes.
  1. Raise awareness of pollution - largest environmental cause of disease and premature death in the world
  2. Provide recommendations for tackling the problem
  3. Pollution is a winnable battle

👌Strategies to Reduce Pollution and Save Lives

Image of Strategies to Reduce Pollution and Save Lives

Image of Strategies to Reduce Pollution and Save Lives

Image of Strategies to Reduce Pollution and Save Lives

Outdoor Air Pollution

  • Switch to lower sulfur content fuels.
  • Control large & small stationary polluters. Switch fuels, install scrubbers, change zoning, enforce policy, educate.
  • Require catalytic converters and better efficiency standards for cars and trucks.
  • Reduce open burning for agriculture. Use new ways of dealing with farm waste.

Water Pollution

  • In cities, fund wastewater treatment plants & connect houses.
  • Install village and home local sanitation and clean water systems. Include safe water storage.

Workplace: Regulate occupational exposures & fund effective enforcement.

Soil, Heavy Metals & Chemicals

  • Create an inventory of highly polluted sites. Look for major health exposures.
  • Reduce emissions and clean-up sites posing biggest health threats first. Prevention first. Polluter pays, if possible.
  • Look for lead exposures. Pottery, battery recycling & paint. Test people’s blood.
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Lancet Commission on Pollution & Health; Great Smog of Delhi (Current Affairs 2017 - 18) (In - Hindi)

Majority of the news is mentioning the Delhi incidence as “SMOG”, smog is however associated with ground level ozone formation and Sulphur and nitrous oxides

- Published/Last Modified on: November 21, 2017

Environment/Ecology

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