Expected Questions / Topics for UPSC IAS Prelims 2020: Kurukshetra Part 3 Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY) (Download PDF)

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Launched on 28 August 2014. A national mission on financial inclusion. Access to a range of financial services like availability of basic savings bank account, access to need based credit, remittance facility, insurance and pension. Covers both urban and rural areas. Availability of indigenous debit cards (Rupay card). Zero balance bank account- Can be opened in any bank branch or Business Correspondent (or Bank Mitra) outlet.

  • Mobile banking- using USSD facility (even on basic feature phones).

  • Facility of call centre and toll-free number.

  • Rs. 5,000 overdraft facility for Aadhaar-linked accounts.

  • A RuPay Debit Card with inbuilt Rs. 1 lakh accident insurance cover.

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Other Initiatives Promoting Financial Inclusion

  • Financial Literacy programme.

  • Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT).

  • Kisan Credit Cards (KCC).

  • Swavalamban Pension Scheme.

  • Atal Pension Yojana (APY).

  • Pradhan Mantri Vayavandana Yojana (PMVVY).

  • Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana.

  • Stand Up India Scheme.

  • Beti Bachaao Beti Padhaao scheme.

  • MUDRA Scheme.

Clean and Renewable Energy Initiatives

KUSUM Yojana

  • Kisan Urja Suraksha evam Ethan Mahabhiyan.

  • Objective- Providing financial and water security to farmers.

  • Unique Scheme- Direct employment potential.

  • Increases self-employment.

  • Generate employment opportunity equivalent to 6.31 lakh jobs for skilled and unskilled workers.

  • Open a stable and continuous source of income to the rural land owners.

  • Impact in terms of savings of carbon dioxide emissions.

Three components

  • 10,000 MW of decentralized ground-mounted.

  • Grid connected renewable power plants.

  • Installation of 17.50 lakh standalone solar-powered agriculture pumps.

Other Initiatives

  • Sustainable Rooftop Implementation for Solar Transfiguration of India – SRIST I by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy.

  • A National Wind-Solar Hybrid Policy.

  • Green Energy Corridor.

  • Use of battery storage in the hybrid project.

  • Intra State Transmission System (ISTS) -Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.

Women Empowerment: A New Paradigm

Measures taken for Health Empowerment

  • Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY).

  • Maternity Care Act.

  • Pradhan Mantri Surakshit Matritva Abhiyan (PMSMA).

  • National Nutrition Mission.

  • Mission Indradhanush.

Social Security and Empowerment

Measures taken

  • Swachh Vidyalaya Initiative.

  • Swachh Bharat Mission.

  • Ujjwala Yojana.

  • Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY).

  • Working Women Hostels.

Financial Security and Empowerment

Measures taken

  • Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana (PMMY).

  • Stand-Up India.

  • Sukanya Samridhi Yojana.

  • Mahila E-Haat.

Social Security Schemes for Social Development

  • Objective of providing insurance services to the economically weaker section of society.

  • Scheme Benefits- Lower income group, Premium of the scheme have been kept low.

Schemes launched by the GOI

  • Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY).

  • Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana (PMJJBY).

  • Atal Pension Yojna (APY).

  • Pradhan Mantri Vaya Vandana Yojana (PMVVY).

  • Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY).

  • Restructured Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme (RWBCIS).

  • Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PMJAY).

  • Swachhta Udyami Yojana.

  • NSFDC’s Green Business Scheme.

  • Credit Enhancement Guarantee Scheme for the Scheduled Castes.

Empowering Farmers through Agricultural Initiatives

  • Target of doubling farmers’ income by the year 2022.

  • Constitution of Inter-Ministerial Committee under the Chairmanship of Chief Executive Officer, National Rain fed Area Authority, Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare.

  • Improvement in crop and livestock productivity.

  • Diversification towards high value crops.

  • Improvement in real prices received by farmers.

  • Shift from farm to non-farm occupations.

Measures taken by GOI

  • Initiating market reforms.

  • Launch of eNAM

  • Soil Health Cards.

  • “Per drop more crop” initiative.

  • “Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY) “.

  • “Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY) “.

  • “Har Medh Par Ped”, agro-forestry Scheme.

  • National Bamboo Mission.

  • PM-Asha scheme.

  • Minimum Support Price (MSP).

  • Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH).

  • Rashtriya Gokul Mission.

  • National Livestock Mission.

  • National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA).

Electricity Availability and Sustainability to All

New technical interventions (Transparency in Power administration)


  • Vidyut Pravah.

  • UJALA (Unnat Jyoti by Affordable LED`S for All).

  • UrjaMitra.

  • MERIT.

  • UDAY.

  • URJA (Urban Jyoti Abhiyaan).

  • TARANG (Transmission App for real time monitoring & Growth).

  • DEEP e-bidding (Discovery of Efficient Electricity Price).

  • Ash Track.

Other Schemes to ensure electricity to all

  • Pradhan Mantri Sahaj Bijli Har Ghar Yojana.

  • Free of cost electricity connections to all remaining un-electrified households.

  • Integrated Power Development Scheme (IPDS).

  • Ujwal DISCOM Assurance Yojana (UDAY).

Skilling India through Government Initiatives

Programs launched by the GOI

  • Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY).

  • Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Kendra (PMKK).

  • National Apprenticeship Promotion Scheme (NAPS).

  • Establishing Academic Equivalence.

  • Capacity building in long term skill development.

  • National Skill Training Institute (NSTI).

  • Indian Institute of Skills (IIS).

  • Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) with Best in Class Employers.



  • National Council for Vocational Training (NCVT) and the National Skill Development Agency (NSDA).

  • Jan Shikshan Sansthan (JSS).

Corporate Investment in Agriculture

Essentiality of Corporate Investment

  • Private sector- increasingly active in commercial crops.

  • Private sector’s role is becoming more dynamic to include a large number of services.

  • Private corporate investment in agriculture-Total annual investment is about 2%.

  • Greater investments from companies which buy farmers’ produce.

Government Efforts to Encourage Corporate Investment


  • To encourage Farmer Producer Companies (FPCs) -efforts since 2012.

  • National Mission on Oilseeds and Oil Palm (NMOOP) from 2014 - 15.

  • Agriculture Grand Challenge launched by the Ministry of Agriculture and farmers Welfare, in collaboration with Start-Up India.

The Model Agriculture produce & Livestock Marketing (Promotion & Facilitation) Act, 2017.

  • Provides opportunity to the private sector.

  • To set up private markets.

  • Alternate marketing channels.

  • Online market platforms.

The Model Agriculture produce & Livestock Contract Farming & Services Act (Promotion & facilitation) Act, 2018

  • Enables private sector investments.

  • Way of capital

  • Technology

  • Extension along the value system.

Banking and Financial Inclusion

Need for Financial Inclusion

  • A large part of the supply of money in circulation under Banks control.

  • Influence on consumption, production, employment and distribution of resources.

  • A role in maintaining equity and growth.

  • Ability to uplift financial condition.

Self Help Group Bank Linkage Programme (SBLP)

  • Cost effective

  • An effective tool for poverty eradication.

  • Lending to the poor is bankable.

  • Small loan products can be offered to the poor without collateral.

Kisan Credit (KCCs) and General Credit Cards (GCCs)

  • To help farmers get quick and timely access to formal credit.

  • Both owner cultivators as well as landless cultivators avail credit to meet their needs at subsidized rates of interest.

  • Farmers can get bank loan for a variety of purposes in agriculture and allied sectors.

BSBDA Account

  • Introduction of No-Frills Account (NFA) in 2005.

  • NFA offers minimum banking facilities to the account holders by having a zero balance.

  • 2012-no Frills Accounts were replaced with Basic Savings Bank Deposit Account (BSBDA).

Health for New Rural India

Schemes Introduced to Address Health Issues in India

  • Pradhan Mantri Swastya Suraksha Yojana.

  • National Health Mission.

  • Ayushman Bharat-PMJAY.

  • Autonomous Bodies (AIIMSPGI etc).

  • Mission Indradhanush.

  • Rashtriya Bal Suraksha Karyakram.

  • Ayushman Bharat.

National Health Policy (NHP) 2017


  • To raise the health sector spending to 2.5 per cent of GDP.

  • To create patient centric institutions.

  • Empower the patients.

  • Laying down standards for quality treatment.

  • Reducing the infant mortality to 28 by 2018.

  • To strengthen health infrastructure to 2 beds/1000 population and provide free drugs, free diagnostics.

  • To improve the life expectancy at birth from 67.5 years to 70 years by 2025.

MSMEs: Key Component for India’S $5 Trillion Economy


  • Employment Generation.

  • In exports.

  • In skilling people.

  • Easier access to credit flow.

  • A bigger role in the ‘Make in India’ campaign.

Importance of MSME Sector

  • Gross value added-Nearly one-third of aggregate economy.

  • Approximately one-third of manufacturing output.

  • Three-fouths of all establishments.

MSMEs Contribution:

  • 6.11 % of the manufacturing GDP.

  • 24.63 % of GDP from service activities.

  • 33.4 % of India’s manufacturing output.

  • Provided employment to around 120 million persons.

  • Contributed around 45 % of the overall exports from India.

  • Consistently maintained a growth rate of over 20%.

MSMEs help in

  • Generating large scale employment.

  • Sustaining economic growth.

  • Increasing the exports.

  • Making growth inclusive.

Government initiatives for MSMEs

  • Access to credit.

  • Access to market.

  • Technology upgradation.

  • Ease of doing business.

  • Social Security for MSME sector Employees.

Non-Farm Sector in India

Rural Non-Farm-Sector (RNFS)

  • Household and non-household manufacturing.

  • Handicrafts.

  • Processing.

  • Repairs.

  • Construction.

  • Mining and quarrying.

  • Transport.

  • Trade.

  • Communication.

  • Community and personal services.

GoI Interventions for the Promotion of Non-Farm Sector

  • Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana (PMMY).

  • ‘The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), 2005’.

  • Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana (DDU-GKY).

  • Deendayal Antodaya Yojana.

  • Aajeevika Grameen Express Yojana (AGEY).

Challenges in the RNFS (Rural Non-Farm Sector)

  • Infrastructure.

  • Quality of manpower.

  • Forward and backward linkages- Affect performance of nonfarm activities in rural areas.

  • Forward linkages- Serve as inputs to other sectors.

  • Backward linkages-Demands the outputs of other sectors.

Rural Tourism Scheme-Infrastructure Development

  • Key geographic regions would be identified for development.

  • To promote village tourism as the primary tourism product.

  • To spread tourism and its socio-economic benefits to rural and its new geographic regions.

  • Maximum amount sanctioned under this scheme- Rs. 50 lakhs.

  • To utilize the resources available under different schemes of Dept. Of Rural Development, State Govts. and other concerned Departments of the Govt. of India.

Permissible activities

  • Improvement of the surroundings of the Village.

  • Activities included-landscaping, development of parks, fencing, compound wall etc.

  • Illumination in the village.

  • Construction of Wayside amenities.

  • Refurbishment of the Monuments.

  • Reception.

  • Other work/activities directly related to tourism.

  • Tourist Accommodation.

GOI Interventions to Promote RNFS (Rural Non-Farm Sector)

  • Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana.

  • Start-Up Village Start-up Village Entrepreneurship Programme.

  • Aajeevika Grameen Express Yojana (AGEY).

  • Deendayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana (DDUGKY).

  • Young Professionals (YPs) scheme.

  • Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana (PMMY).

  • National Apprenticeship Promotion Scheme (NAPS).

Handlooms and Handicrafts-Potential Employers in Nonfarm Sector

Significance of Handlooms and Handicrafts in RNFS

  • Agricultural system being mainly a rain fed farming system.

  • Provides seasonal unemployment to the farmers and agricultural laborers.

  • Contribute to the cycle of consistent employment.

  • Minimizes the risk of food insecurity in rural areas.

  • Prevents migration of artisans, weavers and small marginal farmers from rural to urban areas.

  • Help in getting social recognition to the respective producer communities.

  • Maintains a social stability and harmony in the rural society.

GOI Measures to Promote Handloom and Handicrafts Sector

  • National Handloom Development Programme (NHDP).

  • Block Level Clusters (BLCs).

  • Comprehensive Handloom Cluster Development Scheme (CHCDS).

  • Financial assistance upto Rs. 2.00 crore per cluster for various interventions like skill up-gradation.

  • Weaver Mudra Scheme-6 % concessional interest rate being provided to the handloom weavers.

  • Handloom Weaver Mudra Portal.

  • The India Handloom Brand.

  • Bunkar Mitra.

  • e-Marketing.

  • National Handicrafts and Handloom Museum.

Food Processing for Non-Farm Sector

Status of Indian Food Processing Industry

  • World’s sixth largest.

  • Retail contributing 70 per cent of the sales.

  • Accounts for 32 per cent of the country’s total food market.

  • Contributes around 8.80 and 8.39 % of Gross Value Added (GVA) in Manufacturing and Agriculture respectively.

  • Indian Organic Food Market-Expected to increase by three times by 2020.

SAMPADA (Scheme for Agro Marine Processing and Development of Agro-Processing Clusters)

  • An umbrella scheme incorporating ongoing schemes of the Ministry like Mega Food Parks.

  • Integrated Cold Chain and Value Addition Infrastructure.

  • Food Safety and Quality Assurance Infrastructure.

  • Infrastructure for Agro-processing Clusters.

  • Creation of Backward and Forward Linkages.

  • Creation/Expansion of Food Processing & Preservation Capacities.

  • New schemes of Infrastructure for Agro-processing Clusters.

  • Creation of Backward and Forward Linkages.

Measures Taken by GOI to Boost Food Processing Sector

  • Allowed 100 % FDI in trading including through e-commerce, in respect of food products manufactured and/or produced in India.

  • Setting up a Special Fund of Rs. 2000 crore in NABARD to make available affordable credit at concessional rate of interest.

  • Priority Sector Landing-

  • Food and agro–based processing units.

  • Cold chain infrastructure.

  • To provide additional credit for food processing activities.

  • Boosting food processing.

  • Reducing wastage.

  • Creating employment.

  • Increasing farmers’ income.

Ensuring Safe and Adequate Drinking Water

Status of Water Availability in Rural India

  • Among the world’s most water stressed countries.

  • Half of India’s annual precipitation falls in just 15 rain-soaked days.

  • Rural India-700 million people residing in about 1.42 million habitations.

  • (NSSO) (2011 - 12) - 88.5 % households in rural India had improved source of drinking water. Among these 85.8 % had sufficient drinking water.

  • 46.1 % of the rural households-No drinking water.

Government Initiatives

  • 1981- Government of India launched the international Water Supply and Sanitation Decade (81 - 90) programme.

  • 1986- Technology Mission for drinking water was set up.

  • 1991- Technology Mission for drinking water was renamed as Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission.

  • 1999-Creation of the Department of Drinking Water Supply in the Ministry of Rural Development.

  • Bharat Nirman (Central government) - Created the required infrastructure to have good quality water to rural households.

  • National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP).

  • A 6,000-crore World Bank-aided Atal Bhujal Yojana with community participation.

  • March 2017-Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation started a new sub- programme under NRDWP known as the National Water Quality Sub-Mission.

  • Challenges

  • WaterAid Report (Britain based charity) - Nearly 163 million of India’s population lack access to clean water close to home.

  • Committee on Restructuring the Central Water Commission (CWC) and the Central Ground Water Board (CGWB) -About half of the demand for water will be unmet by 2030.

  • Climate change.

  • 60 % of the districts face groundwater over-exploitation.

Community Participation and Quality Drinking Water Supply

Deteriorating Water Quality in the Rural Areas-Reasons

  • Rapid depletion of groundwater level due to over extraction.

  • Uncontrolled construction activities in rural areas.

  • Encroachment of the erstwhile water bodies.

  • Siltation of rural water bodies.

  • Reduction of water bodies.

  • Erratic rainfall and droughts.

  • Water pollution due to incessant and increased use of pesticides, fertilizers.

Steps to be taken to achieve water security

  • Social mobilization.

  • Initiation of need analysis.

  • Preparation of water security plan & village action plan.

  • Water safety plan to ensure water quality.

  • Ensuring convergence with line departments of district to plan & execute water conservation projects under PMKSY, MGNREGA etc.

  • Technical support cells in consultation with District/block administration.

  • Proper Coordination with District/block level authorities for promoting timely execution of water projects.

  • Conduct periodic sanitary survey.

  • Monitor water availability water sources & quality of water.

  • Ensure availability of water testing kit for each Gram Panchayat.

Basic Water Treatment Technologies

  • Slow sand filters (SSF).

  • Chlorination.

  • Solar Disinfection (SODIS).

Policy Reforms needed for rural water management

  • Better Data.

  • Basin/Sub-basin level water management.

  • Water source improvement.

  • Integrated water and waste management.

  • Supply and access augmentation.

  • Demand side management.

  • Capacity building.

  • Institutional and legislative reforms.

  • Preparedness for disasters.

  • Awareness regarding drinking water resources.

World Environment Day

Clean Air Measures for curbing the air pollution

  • Strengthen emission standards for road vehicles.

  • Regularly maintain and inspect vehicles.

  • Mainstream electric vehicles.

  • Provide better mobility options.

  • Control dust from construction and roads.

  • Reduce emissions from international shipping.

  • Improve post-combustion control.

  • Strengthen industrial process emissions standards.

  • Introduce efficient brick kilns technology.

  • Control methane from oil and gas production.

  • Improve solvent use and refinery controls.

  • Improve livestock manure management.

  • Control methane from oil and gas production.

  • Prevent forest and peatland fires.

  • Stop biogas leakage from wastewater treatment.

  • Improve solid waste management.

Rural Drinking Water Supply Infrastructure

Swajal Scheme

  • Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation.

  • To provide every rural person with adequate safe water for drinking.

  • Cooking and other domestic basic needs on a sustainable basis.

  • To meet minimum water quality standards.

  • State government in partnership with rural communities

  • Plan, design, construct.

  • Operate and maintain their water supply and sanitation schemes.

  • Getting potable water.

  • Attaining health and hygiene benefits.

Integrated Management Information System (IMIS) on drinking Water

  • An integrated information management system on drinking water of all states.

  • The information is regularly updated by each state on the water quality of various water sources.

  • Number of schools and habitats having access to drinking water in rural areas.

  • Salient features (IMIS)

  • Provides near to real time coverage status of a particular habitation available with water supply assets.

  • Allows viewing of quality status of a source to find out if safe potable water.

  • Facilitates monitoring of covered habitations.

  • Helps in elimination of repeated investments in some habitations.

  • Achieves high transparency through user friendly reports available in public domain.

Role of Gram Panchayat in Operation and Maintenance of Infrastructure of Drinking water supply

  • Village Panchayat or GP would pass a resolution for taking up maintenance works in distribution system.

  • May pass necessary resolution for executing works by utilizing Panchayat funds.

  • May provide household tap connections on passing Gram Panchayat resolution.

  • Incur expenditure on water supply maintenance work as per finance limit as fixed by State Govt.

  • Would collect water charge from households at rate fixed by Govt. / DWSM (District Water and Sanitation Mission).

  • For effective maintenance of Distribution system VWSC (Village Water and Sanitation Committees).

- Published/Last Modified on: January 28, 2020


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