Rapid Transformation in Rural Employment Scenario (Download PDF)

Doorsteptutor material for UGC is prepared by world's top subject experts: Get detailed illustrated notes covering entire syllabus: point-by-point for high retention.

  • Ministry of Rural Development
  • Gainful employment or self-employment
  • Inclusive development of villages through its several schemes.
  • Focus is on generating employment opportunities for the poor and youth of the village.
  • Setting up of public utility facilities in rural areas along with the development:
    • Electrification
    • Housing
    • Transport facilities
    • Roads and connectivity routes
  • Measures related to promoting economy of:
    • Private sector
    • Implementing fast paced projects involving extensive investment
    • Promoting self-employment
    • Reforming labour laws
    • Accelerating various initiatives related to labour welfare have been taken
  • Annual Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS):
    • The share of regular wages/salaries has increased by 5 % i. e. , from 18 % in 2011–12 to 23 per cent in 2017–18.
    • The proportion of women workers in the category of regular wage/salary-based employment has increased by 8 %.
  • Introduction of Goods and Services Tax (GST), digitization of payments, direct benefit transfer of wages and salaries, opening of Jan Dhan accounts and expanding social security.
  • According to the latest data of the Employees’ State Insurance Corporation (ESIC):
    • 14.59 lakh jobs were created in November 2019
    • Around 12.67 lakh jobs in December 2019
  • A total of 1.49 crore new employees/workers were enrolled in Employees’ State Insurance Corporation during FY 2018–19 according to National Statistical Office (NSO) report.

Kaushal Bharat - “Kushal Bharat Programme”

  • Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship.
  • More than one crore youth are being imparted training in various skills every year.
  • To enhance their access to better and lucrative livelihood.

Pradhan Mantri Shram Yogi Maan Dhan Yojana

  • A voluntary and contributory pension scheme.
  • Launched in Feb 2019 for the welfare of workers in the unorganized sector.
  • The benefit of this central sector scheme is being given to those workers in the unorganized sector, whose monthly income is Rs. 15,000 or less.
  • These workers also need to have a savings account or Jan Dhan account in a bank linked with an Aadhaar number.
  • Workers between the age of 18 and 40 years can join this scheme.
  • After attaining 60 years of age, the beneficiary gets monthly pension of Rs. 3,000.
  • Enrolment can be done through Common Service Centres.
  • As of December 10,2019, the number of beneficiaries under the scheme rose above 39 lakhs.
  • Any eligible person can also enrol himself by visiting the scheme’s website.

Voluntary and Contributory National Pension Scheme

  • Launched for businessmen, shopkeepers and persons engaged in self-employment on September 12,2019.
  • Nomination for this scheme can also be done through the Common Service Centre or by visiting the portal of the scheme itself.
  • This scheme can be joined by:
  • Businessmen between the age of 18 and 40 years whose annual turnover does not exceed Rs. 1.5 crore.
  • Those who are not members of Employees’ Provident Fund Organization/Employees’ State Insurance Corporation/National Pension Scheme/Pradhan Mantri Shram Yogi Maan Dhan Yojana.
  • 50 % monthly contribution is made by the beneficiary.
  • The matching contribution is made by the central government.
  • A person is entitled to a minimum monthly pension of Rs. 3000 on completion of 60 years.
  • A total of 20,000 beneficiaries have joined this pension scheme as of December 10,2019.
  • Number of people getting employment has increased due to the:
    • Benefits of social security provided to the worker of unorganized sector
    • Self-employed persons
    • Businessmen and shopkeepers

National Apprenticeship Promotion Scheme (NAPS)

  • Launched in August 2016.
  • To encouraging employers to engage as many apprentices as possible.
  • Enrolment of apprentices has improved significantly during the last five years.
  • With a view to expand the service sector, integrate training courses with apprenticeship and its promotion, the Apprentices Act was amended in December 2014.

National Career Service

  • Ministry of Labour and Employment
  • A mission mode project to provide various employment-related services such as:
    • Career counselling
    • Vocational guidance
    • Information related to skill development courses
    • Apprenticeship and internship
  • These services can be directly accessed through livelihood centres, common service centres, post offices, mobile or cyber-cafes etc.
  • Online services are available under this scheme.
  • The stakeholders include:
    • Job seekers
    • Industries
    • Employers
    • Employment centres
    • Training providers
    • Educational institutions and placement agencies
  • More than one crore job seekers and more than 25 thousand active employers have registered themselves with the National Career Service as of October 31,2019.
  • 58.5 million Vacant posts have been explored.
  • 21 National Livelihood Services Centres are also being run for the differently-abled, Under the administrative control of the Directorate General of Employment:
    • Include assessing the abilities of differently-abled and providing them with vocational training and rehabilitation support.
    • More than 6,600 differently-abled have been provided employment based on their competence and ability till December 31,2019.
    • Twenty-five National Livelihood Service Centres have been established for Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe persons.
    • Typing and shorthand training was provided.

Prime Minister Rojgar Protsahan Yojana (PMRPY)

  • The government is providing special assistance to new employers for a period up to 3 years.
  • From the start of business.
  • Entire contribution of employers in the Employees’ Provident Fund and Employees’ State Insurance Scheme is being paid by the Government of India itself.
  • Employers are encouraged to increase number of workers in their enterprises.
  • Workers are also getting social security benefits of the unorganized sector.
  • Beneficiaries of this scheme have been linked to Aadhaar.

Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana

  • National Rural Livelihoods Mission.
  • To reduce poverty through promotion of diversified and gainful self-employment.
  • Skilled wage employment opportunities resulting in appreciable increase.
  • Incomes of the rural poor on sustainable basis.
  • Emphasis is being laid on promoting and strengthening community institutions.
  • Activities related to poverty reduction in rural areas can be devised through them in a planned manner.
  • Components under NRHM:
    • The livelihood programme focuses on women self-help groups.
    • These SHGs groups are linked to banks for productivity or trade related loans.
    • Deen Dayal Upadhyay Grameen Kaushalya Yojana is the second component.
    • Rural youth from poor families in the age group of 15 to 25 years are provided skill training which is certification-based and in conformity with the National Skill Qualifications Framework (NSQF) under Deen Dayal Upadhyay Grameen Kaushalya Yojana.

Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana

  • The Ministry of Rural Development along with state governments.
  • Launched on 25th December, 2000 to provide all-weather access to unconnected habitations.
  • Rolled out in the year 2000.
  • Enhancing rural road connectivity.
  • To provide access to all-weather roads in 1.78 lakh rural habitations across the country.
  • To provide single all-weather road connectivity to eligible unconnected habitation of designated population size (500 + in plain areas and 250 + in North-East, hill, tribal and desert areas as per Census, 2001).
  • Connecting habitations through constructing roads has transformed the rural economy, enhanced income, job opportunities.
  • The World Bank impact evaluation of PMGSY applies habitation level data from Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan.
  • The World Bank study also shows a positive impact on child immunization, childbirths in hospitals, and schooling of both boys and girls in rural areas.
  • Helps in poverty reduction by promoting access to economic and social services.
  • Scheme has been benefiting several villagers and helping them lead better lives.
  • Nearly 82 % of roads have been built till December 2017.
  • PMGSY - Phase I:
    • Launched in December, 2000.
    • A 100 % centrally sponsored scheme with an objective to provide single all-weather road connectivity to eligible unconnected habitation of designated population size.
    • Overall socio-economic development of the areas.
    • 1,35,436 habitations were targeted for providing road connectivity and 3.68 lakh km.
  • PMGSY - Phase II:
    • Approved during May, 2013.
    • The roads already built for village connectivity was to be upgraded.
    • To enhance rural infrastructure.
    • Under PMGSY-II a target of 50,000 Km length for the 12th five year plan.
  • PMGSY - Phase III:
    • Approved by the Cabinet during July 2019.
  • Involves consolidation of Through Routes and Major Rural Links connecting habitations to:
    • Gramin Agricultural Markets (GrAMs)
    • Higher Secondary Schools and Hospitals
    • It has been proposed to consolidate 1,25,000 Km road length in the States.
    • The duration of the scheme is 2019 - 20 to 2024 - 25.

- Published/Last Modified on: September 4, 2020

Agriculture/Agro Industries, Govt. Schemes/Projects, Kurukshetra