Skilling for Future: Reaping Demographic Dividend for Atmanirbhar Bharat (December)

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India is one of the youngest nations in the world, median age of 28 - 29 years. At present, 55.8 % of Indian population is in the working age group of 20 - 59 years. This percentage will peak at 58.9 % in 2041. The coming decades are a window of opportunity for India to become a $ 5 trillion economy by transforming its human capital into skilled workforce.

Skilling in India: From then to Now

  • From ancient times there is enough evidence in the form of manuscripts, excavations that India had high quality of craftsmanship.
  • The skills from the master craftsmen and artisans transfer to their students through vocational system.
  • Vocational education was also the core of teaching at Takshashila and Nalanda.
  • Banabhatta՚s Kadambari described a good education as knowledge of 64 Kalaas or arts.
  • Branches of creative human endeavor (mathematics, science, vocational subjects etc.) are of Indian origin. This ‘knowledge of many arts’ in modern days called as ‘liberal arts’ .
  • The formalisation of the study of 3 ₹ (Reading, Writing, Arithmetic) is a welcome step. Though it made distinction between vocational and formal education.
  • Vocational is till date treated as option for ‘not great’ in formal. These distinctions were challenged by Nai Talim philosophy and Wardha model of development by Gandhiji.

Nai Talim

  • Considered knowledge and work inseparable.
  • Challenged distinction between ‘manual work’ and ‘intellectual work’
  • Propounded a holistic education (body, mind and soul were given equal importance)
  • Education through craft can develop a child as physically fit, intellectually sound and skilled human.
  • Gandhiji also supported this type of notion.

Skilling in Independent India

  • Polytechnics, Industrial training Institutes and Nai Talim institutes were opened.
  • Craftsmen Training Scheme initiated in 1950. It has a network of 15,042 it is
  • These institutes helped to build a foundation of vocational education.
  • In 2014, it was estimated that only 2.3 % of workforce in India undergone skill training. This number is much lower than other nations like (UK = 68 % , USA = 52 % , Japan = 80 % , South Korea = 96 %) .
  • Keeping an eye to skill the most productive population of the country Government has created a dedicated ministry for skill development i.e.. Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship in November 2014.

Skill India Mission: A Game Changer

Known as National Skill Development Mission on World Skills Day (July 15) in the year 2015.

Aim: to train over 40 cr people by 2022.

The Mission is chaired by the Prime Minister of India.

Responsible for convergence in skill development between Centre and State.

The mission gave a boost to the National Skill Development Corporation. This is a not-for-profit company in PPP model. Government՚s share in this is 49 % and that of private sector is 51 % .

Government of India prepared the National Policy on Skill Development and Entrepreneurship, 2015 which created SSCs (Sector Skill Councils) .

SSCs are standard-setting and capacity-building bodies comprise of members from both public and private industries.

36 SSCs are operational today. Their mandate includes

  • Identification of skill development needs.
  • Development of a sector skill development plan and maintaining skill inventory.
  • Determining skills/competency standards and qualifications.
  • Standardization of affiliation, accreditation, examination and certification.
  • Developed placement portals.

National Skill Qualification Framework (NSQF) organizes qualifications according to a series of knowledge, skills, aptitude. It is a quality assurance framework.

  • Defined ten levels of framework.
  • Created equivalence between skills learned in vocational and formal education.

Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY) 1.0 was launched in 2015. Its aim was to encourage and promote skill development.

PMKVY 2.0 was launched from 2016 - 2020. It expanded the scope of skill development by certifying people who had skills but not recognised.

PMKVY 3.0 focuses on Atmanirbhar Bharat. It also uses ‘vocal for local’ strategy. It is establishing increased connections at state, district and block – level.

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