Social Empowerment: Yojana August 2018 Summary (Part - 2) (Download PDF)


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Mudra Scheme (Pradhan Mantri’s Mudra Yojana, PMMY) - Micro Units development & Re-finance Agency (MUDRA) executing financial body fulfils programme objectives under stand-up India initiative.

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Social Empowerment: Yojana August 2018 (In English)

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Yojana August 2018: Social Empowerment

  • Mudra provides funding support to financial institutions lend small loans to micro –units in country. Credit Guarantee fund for Micro Units also commissioned to provide payment against default in micro loans extended by banks, NBFCs, MFIs & other FI intermediaries.
  • Micro-loans categorized & named ‘shishu’, ‘Kishor’, &’Tarun’ according to phase of growth of firm & its corresponding funding needs.

Start-up Village Entrepreneurship Programme (SVEP)

  • SVEP announced during budget session of 2014 - 15 to motivate rural youngsters to take self-employment opportunities w/help of state-sponsored financial support.


  • Regular entrepreneurship development interventions, periodic mentoring & guidance sessions & integrated policy strategy to micro-enterprises development using potential of micro finance & SHGs can turn socially backward communities into competitive entrepreneurs who can drive economic aspirations of our nation.

Social Empowerment for Differently Abled

  • As per census 2011, number of persons w/Disabilities in India 268.14 lakhs constituting 2.21 % of total population. Highest number of people w/disabilities have locomotor (54.37) followed by hearing impairment (50.73) & visual impairment (50.33).

  • Social empowerment broad area of practice drawing upon social work & community development principles.

Assistance to Disabled Persons

  • First time, Cochlear Implant Program under ADIP scheme launched on International Day of persons w/Disabilities, 2014 w/empanelment of 172 hospitals across country.

Technology Development Projects in Mission Mode

  • Provide suitable & cost effective aids & appliances thru application of technology & increase employment opportunities & integration in society of physically disabled, scheme started during 1990 - 91. Under scheme, suitable R &D projects identified & funded for developing aids & appliances.

Inclusive Education for Disabled at Secondary Stage (IEDSS)

  • Scheme supports children w/disabilities aged 14 or above for completing their secondary education from class 9 to 12 in Govt. , local body & Govt. aided schools.

Accessible India Campaign

  • Campaign launched in 2015 for creating universal accessibility for PwDs in built environment, transport, information & communication technology (ICT) ecosystem. Campaign based on principles of social model of disability, it caused by way society is organised & not person’s limitation & impairments.

Implementation of Persons w/Disabilities Act (SIPDA)

  • Wide ranging scheme, under which financial assistance given for skill development, creation of barrier free environment, running some institutions in field & other related activities relating to implementation of Act.

Deendayal Disabled Rehabilitation Schemes (DDRS)

  • Financial assistance provided to NGOs for projects relating to rehabilitation of persons w/disabilities.

Information, Communication & Technology (ICT)

  • Currently news bulletin w/sign language, Govt. will training 200 persons in sign language every year for next five years. Sign languages introduced in more than 25 % of programmes, starting w/Doordarshan make television more disabled-friendly.

Awareness Generation & Publicity

  • Scheme launched in 2014 w/objective of providing wide publicity including event based publicity etc. thru electronic, print, film media to schemes & programmes being run by Central Govt. & State Govt. for welfare of persons w/disabilities, to create an enabling environment for social inclusion of Pw Ds, to disseminate information about legal rights of Pw Ds, to sensitize employers.


Social empowerment typically implemented at four following levels:

  • Individual level-where person values him/herself & actively wants to participate in life

  • Family level- where family gets guidance & support for social rehabilitation of their members w/disabilities

  • Community level- where awareness programme can conducted. Social support from community along w/Govt. policies leads to social inclusion where a person encouraged to thrive in his/her personal situation & inclusive environment &

  • Social policies level impacting local & national level actions to promote social equity & inclusion of all persons w/disabilities.

Important Intiatives of the Govt. for Welfare of Tribals

  • STs & other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006:

    • STs & other Traditional Forest Dwellers Act, 2006 enacted to recognize & vest forest rights & occupation of forest land in forest dwelling to STs & other traditional forest dwellers, residing in forests for generations, but rights could not be recorded.

    • This act recognizes their rights to hold & live in forest land, but grants several other rights to ensure their control over forest resources like right of ownership, access to collect, use & dispose of minor forest produce, community rights; habitat rights for primitive tribal groups & pre-agricultural communities; right to protect, regenerate community forest resource traditionally protecting & conserving for sustainable use.

  • Monitoring of Funds for Tribal Development: SCA to TSS

    • Special Central Assistance to Tribal Sub Scheme 100 % grant from GOI.

    • Grants-in-aid under First Provision to Article 275 (1) of Constitution of India:

    • 100 % grant from GOI funding under this program to enable State to meet cost of schemes of development as undertaken by State for Purpose of promoting welfare of Scheduled Tribes in State

    • Minimum Support Price for Minor Forest Produce:

    • Minor Forest Produce (MFP) major source of livelihood for tribals who belongs to poorest of poor section of society.

    Development of Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups

    • Ministry of Tribal Affairs implementing scheme namely “Development of PVTG” which covers 75 identified PVTGs STs in 18 States/UT of Andaman & Nicobar Islands.

    • Flexible Scheme & covers funding for activities like housing, & distribution, land development, agricultural development, animal husbandry, construction of link roads, installation of non-conventional sources of energy for lighting purpose, social security including Janshree Beema Yojana

Empowerment of Women

  • Ministry of Women & Child Development

  • 👌 Beti Bachao Beti Padhao (BBBP) comprehensive programme implemented to address declining Child Sex Ratio (CSR) & related issues of empowerment of women over life-cycle continuum.

  • Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY) , contributing towards enabling environment by providing cash incentives health & nutrition to pregnant & nursing mothers

  • Scheme for Adolescent Girls aims at girls in age group 11 - 18, to empower & improve their social status thru nutrition, life skills, home skills & vocational training.

  • Rashtriya Mahila Kosh (RMK) to provide micro-credit to poor women for various livelihood support & income generating activities at concessional terms in client-friendly procedure to bring socio-economic development.

  • Swadhar Greh to provide relief & rehabilitation to destitute women & women in distress

  • Ujjawala, Comprehensive Scheme for prevention of trafficking & for rescue, rehabilitation, re-integration & repatriation of victims of trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation

  • Working Women hostels for ensuring safe accommodation for women working away from their place of residence. Under this scheme, 2 new proposals received & 2 sanctioned in HP during last three years

  • Schemes of One Stop Centre (OSC) & Women Helpline (WH) implemented to facilitate access to integrated range of services including medical aid, police assistance, legal aid/case management, psychosocial counseling & temporary support services to women affected by violence

  • Gender Budgeting Scheme implemented tool for mainstreaming gender perspective various stages of planning, budgeting, implementation, impact assessment & revisiting of policy objectives & allocations. Scheme helps in strengthening of institutional mechanisms & training of various stakeholders so to mainstream gender concerns in Central & State Govts.

Living a Life of Dignity

  • Age related deterioration in most mental functions reversed ‘Cenegenics’ (age management techniques) upcoming practical panacea, raging fad In cities Las Vegas ensures practitioner ”Amortality” (Time, 2011)

  • Research in gerontology & neuropsychology shows mental activity makes neurons sprout new dendrites establish connections w/other neurons dendrites shrink when mind is idle to put simply a person who stops solve problems. Lesson: keep active, if you do, there is no ageing & its dreaded decline.

  • 📝 To hail academic theories-

  • “Wear & Tear” Theory

  • Neuroendocrine Theory

  • Evolutionary vs Life History Theory

  • Genetic Control Theory

  • Free Radical Theory

  • Waste accumulation Theory

  • Caloric Restriction Theory

  • Productive Ageing Theory

That actually help improve quality of longer lives we are enjoying today.

  • Knowledge intervention serves to dispel “ageism” falsely held stereotypes & myths about older people

  • In India still stage of grappling w/food, shelter, medical services, insurance, income security for majority of 91 million people 60+.

  • Dignitarian E A Abraham (81), Mumbai, obtained a degree in Sanskrit when he was 75.

  • ‘Freedom from Garbage Andolan’

Second Career

  • Post retirement pursuit ideally defined as combining best of work & leisure

  • Useful in arguments of politics of intergenerational equity

  • Definite psychological benefits of productivity in old age such as better health, motivation, cognitive functioning, life satisfaction etc.

  • Sociological relevance- social integration & participation, instead of living in fringes of society.

  • Senior Citizens wants to live rest of his/her w/ self-respect, in dignity.

  • Ancient & medieval visions of ageing as “renouncing-focused end part of life” fast changing, making way for secular, scientific & individualistic outlook of modernity.

Gold in Geriatrics

  • National Policy of Older Persons, 1999 brilliant document, very progressive in outlook but newer dimensions in ageing have come up high growth rate of people over 80 years, touching 700 % ageing population growth rate 350 % compared to growth rate of general population.

Constitutional Provisions for Social Justice

Fundamental Rights 📝

  • Article 14: Equality before the law

  • Article 15: Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth

  • Article 16: Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment

  • Article 17: Abolition of Untouchability

  • Article 24: Prohibition of employment of children in factories, etc.

Directive Principles of State Policy

  • Article 38: State to secure a social order for promotion of welfare of the people

  • Article 39: State shall, in particular, direct its policy towards securing:

  • Citizens, men & women equally, have right to adequate means of livelihood

  • Ownership & control of material resources of community distributed as best to sub serve common good

  • Article 39 A: Equal justice & free legal aid

  • Article 41: Right to work, to education & public assistance in certain cases

  • Article 46: Promotion of educational & economic interests of SCs, STs & other weaker sections

Safeguards for SCs & STs 📝

  • Article 17: relates abolition of untouchability practiced in society Parliament enacted Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1989 to tackle problem of untouchability practiced against SCs

  • Article 23: Prohibits human trafficking & beggar & other similar forms of forced labour & provides any contravention this provision shall be punishable offence. Although this article is not specifically articulated fir SCs & STs because majority of bonded labour is from SCs so it holds significance for them

  • Article 25 (2) (b): provides Hindu religious institutions of a public character shall be opened to all classes & sections of Hindu.

Economic Safeguards

  • Article 15 (4): As mentioned above under heading Fundamental Rights & subheading Justice for equality

  • Article 335: allows relaxation in qualifying marks for admission in educational institutes for SCs/STs

📝 Political Safeguards

  • Article 243 D: Reservation of seats for SCs & STs in every Panchayat

  • Article 243 T: Reservation of seats for SCs & STs in every Municipality

  • Article 330: Reservations of seats for SCs & STs in House of the people

  • Article 332: Reservation of seats for SCs & STs Legislative Assemblies of States

  • Article 334: Reservation of seats for & special representation to cease after sixty years.

Service safeguards

  • Article 16 (4) Clause allows state to vacancies in public service for any backward classes of state that are not adequately represented in public services

  • Article 16 (4A) allows state to implement reservation in matter of promotion for SCs & STs

  • Article 16 (4B) allows state to consider unfilled vacancies reserved for backward classes as a separate class of vacancies not subject to a limit of 50 % reservation.

  • Other safeguards

    • Article 164: Appoint special minister for tribal welfare in states of MP, Bihar & Odisha

    • Article 275: Allows special grant in aids to states for tribal welfare.

    • Article 338/338A/339: Establishes National Commission of SCs & STs article 339 allows central govt. to direct states to implement & execute plans for betterment of SCs/STs

    • Article 340: Allows President to appoint Commission to investigate Condition of socially & economically backward classes & table report in Parliament.

📝 Umbrella Schemes for Relief & Rehabilitation of Migrants & Repatriates

  • Central Assistance for one-time settlement of displaced families from Pak Occupied J & K & Chhamb settled in State of J & K

  • Rehabilitation Package & up-gradation of infrastructure of Bangladesh Enclaves & Cooch Behar District after transfer of enclaves b/w India & Bangladesh under land Boundary Agreement

  • Relief assistance to Sri Lankan refugees staying in camps in Tamil Nadu & Odisha

  • Grant-in-Aid to central Tibetan Relief Committee (CTRC) for five years for administrative & social welfare expenses of Tibetan settlements

  • Grant-in-Aid to Govt. of Tripura to Mizoram

  • Grant of enhanced relief of Rs. 5.00 lakh per deceased person, who died during 1984 Anti-Sikh Riots

  • Central Scheme for Assistance to Civilian Victims/Family of Victims of Terrorist/communal/LWE violence & Border Firing & Mine/IED blasts on Indian Territory.

Empowerment thru Political Interventions

  • Empowerment defined as ‘expansion of People’s capabilities & choices, ability to exercise choice based on freedom from hunger, want & deprivation; & opportunity to participate in, decisions that affect their lives.

  • Empowerment involves two important aspects: developing capabilities, negotiating skills & ability of people on one hand; & obtaining authority to make decisions or participate in decision making on affairs that their lives on the other.

Marginalized Sections

  • India has population of 1.3 billion, & even w/average economic growth rate of 6 - 7 % per annum, almost one fourth of its population still lives in poverty

  • Seven out of every 10 Indians still live in rural areas.

Historical Background

  • Mahatma Gandhi strongly believed in Gram Swaraj According to him, villages should be governed by themselves thru elected panchayats to become self-sufficient.

73rd Constitutional Amendment

  • 👌 In Sep. 1991, Panchayati Raj Bill introduced & later passed in 1992 as 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act w/minor modifications & came into force on 24th April 1993 significant feature of this Act it gave Constitutional Status to Panchayati Raj Institutions & it become mandatory to all state Govts. to implement this Act.

  • This Amendment brought uniformity in Structure, composition, powers & functions of PRIs.

  • Creation of Panchayati Raj perhaps best transformation in democratic India to realise participation of ordinary people in power sharing.

Marginalised Sections in PRIs

  • SC elected representatives giving importance to loan & credit for agriculture & animal husbandry related activities.

  • Article 243D specifies mandatory rotation, structural constrains of reservation of seats among constituencies from one election in 3-tier Panchayati Raj system.

  • MP Panchayati Raj Act conduct more than sixteen Gram Sabha meetings annually.

Marginalized Sections: Challenges

  • AP, Haryana, HP, MP, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra & Rajasthan introduced two-child norm as eligibility criteria for contesting elections.

  • Dominate Groups vehemently oppose weaker sections, particularly SCs & STs, to exercise their constitutional rights by participating in process of voting, campaigning, attending meetings, running for office, lobbying their own representatives, etc. , Independently.

India’s MMR now at 130

  • Our Country made major accomplishment of achieving Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) target 5.1 of reducing Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) by three quarters, b/w 1990 & 2015.

  • MMR defined number of maternal deaths from any cause related to or its management (excluding accidental causes) during pregnancy & childbirth or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of duration & site of pregnancy, per 100,000 live births, for special year it needs to highlighted ‘ratio’ & not rate MMR in its dominator, number of women of reproductive age (14 - 45 years of age).

  • MMR reflection of whole national health system & represents outcome of its cons & pros along w/its other characteristics such as inter-sectoral collaboration, transparency & disparities.

  • It implies India shown impressive gains in reduction of maternal mortality w/22 % reduction in MMR since 2013 now nearly 12,000 fewer annual maternal deaths in 2016 as compared to 2013, w/total number of maternal deaths for first time reducing to 32,000 from earlier figure of 44,000.

  • Top three states to contribute this achievement Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand & Assam w/more than 60 point decline in their MM Rs.

  • Uttar Pradesh/Uttarakhand (29%), Kerala (25%), & MP/Chhattisgarh (22%) shown decline in MMR greater than equal to national average of 22%.

  • What needs to highlighted is fact India well on its way to achieve SGD MMR target of 70 lakh live birth as three of our states Kerala (46), Maharashtra (61), & Tamil Nadu (66) already achieved same.

Ensuring Emergency Care

  • Supply side, funds provided for strengthening of ‘Delivery Points’ for provision of comprehensive Reproductive, Maternal, New Born Child Health & Adolescent (RMNCH + A) services.

  • Further, provide state-of-art & outstanding quality care to pregnant women & children 100/50/30 bedded Maternal & Child Health (MCH) wings sanctioned in public health facilities w/high bed occupancy wherein more than 32,000 additional beds sanctioned in more than 590 health facilities across 25 states.

  • To provide outreach services & improve access, approximately 10 lakh Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) engaged

  • 5 National Skills labs & 54 skills lab established to strengthen skills of staff working

Continuum of Care Approach

  • ‘Strategic approach to RMNCH + A, iron & folic acid supplementation given across life stages including pregnant, lactating women & adolescent girls at health facilities.

  • Harnessing IT in healthcare, Mother & Child Tracking system (MCTS & Mother & Child Tracking Facilitation Centre (MCTFC) introduced. Name, telephone, address based web enabled system introduced by to track every pregnant women (more than 13.54 crore pregnant women) & child (11.7 crore children) ensure & monitor timely & quality services to them including ANC, JSY benefit, Immunization etc.

  • Other Important Notes

  • Recent Initiatives of the Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment

  • 25 Schemes in Direct Benefit Transfer mode implemented by Ministry during 2016 - 17 & 2017 - 18 benefits to 1.45 & 1.66 crore beneficiaries respectively released in DBT mode by implementing agencies.

  • Rate of Pre-Matric Scholarship for SC students studying in class IX & X Pre-Matric Scholarship for SC Students & Pre-Matric Scholarship to children of those engaged in occupations involving cleaning & prone to health hazards enhanced by 50 % from 2017 - 18.

  • A new scheme Venture Capital Fund for OBCs on similar lines vs Venture Capital Fund for SCs launched w/initial corpus of Rs. 200 crore Rs. 140 crore provided in 2018 - 19.

  • Under Rashtriya Vayoshri Yojana, 292 Districts selected, assessment camps held 52 districts & distribution camps held in 39 districts, benefitting 43865 Senior Citizens 99431 devices provided to senior citizens belongings to BPL categories.

  • National survey to identify victims of drug abuse taken up survey covers 185 districts, 1.5 lakh households & 6 lakh individuals.


  • DISHA intervention & school readiness scheme for children in age group of 0 - 10 years w/four disabilities covered under National Trust Act it established for welfare of Persons w/Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation & Multiple Disabilities

  • Under this scheme, any Organisation of persons w/disabilities, any organisation of parents of persons w/disabilities, or voluntary organisation may register w/National Trust. Known as Registered Organisations (RO).


  • RO provide day-care facilities to PwD for 4 hour in day (b/w 8 am ti 6pm) along w/age specific activities. Day care open for at least 21 days in a month. Minimum attendance required for a PwD in Disha centre 15 days per month for National Trust to fund PwD.


  • Counselling & guidance especially for Activities for Daily Living (ADL) provided to parents or guardians of PwD w/regular follow ups by RO to ensure parents & or guardians attend a minimum number of counselling sessions RO provide assistance to PwD for admissions in mainstream schools.
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Social Empowerment: Yojana August 2018 (In Hindi)

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Yojana August 2018: Social Empowerment

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