Sunspots, Solar Tsunami and Lifi (Download PDF)

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Temporary phenomena on the Sun՚s photosphere. Appear as spots darker than the surrounding areas. Regions of reduced surface temperature. Caused by concentrations of magnetic field flux that inhibits convection. Usually appear in pairs of opposite magnetic polarity.

  • Number varies according to the approximately 11-year solar cycle.
  • Individual sunspots or groups of sunspots- last anywhere from a few days to a few months.
  • Larger variety is visible from Earth without the aid of a telescope.

Solar Tsunami

  • Triggers the new sunspot cycle.
  • Sunspots get generated from toroidal magnetic field.
  • Extra mass (plasma mass) from higher lattitudes for storing a big mass of plasma a magnetic dam is formed.
  • Magnetic dam can break by the end of a solar cycle.
  • Release of huge amounts of plasma cascading like a tsunami towards the poles.
  • Speed of tsunami waves about 1,000 km per hour carrying excess plasma to the mid-latitudes.


  • Light-fidelity (LiFi) .
  • A technology used for free-space communication.
  • Use of visible and near-visible light.
  • Similar to Wireless Fidelity (WiFi) .
  • WiFi- a technology for wireless local area network communication using microwaves.
  • As visible and near-visible light cannot pass through walls therefore LiFi signal network is more secure.
  • Data transfer speed is about 1Gbps.
  • Frequency of Operation- 100THz.
  • Coverage distance is about 10 metres.

- Published/Last Modified on: March 20, 2020


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