Sustainable Crop Production: (Kurukshetra September 2020) (Download PDF)

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Sustainable Crop Production

  • Agriculture contributes to 17 % GDP.
  • India is largest producer (25 %) , consumer (27 %) and importer (14 %) of pulses.
  • India is largest producer of jute, second largest of rice, wheat, sugarcane, cotton, groundnuts, second largest producer of fruits and vegetables.
  • 4 pillars of sustainability – availability, access, utilization, and stability.
  • Ideal NPK ration is 4: 2: 1 while in Punjab & Haryana it is 19.2: 5.5: 1 and 20.6: 6: 1.
  • Poor organic matter negatively affects properties of matter.
  • Farmyard manure, green yard manure, compost, vermicompost must eb added to increase organic matter content of soil.
  • Soil Health card scheme launched in 2015 – on N, P, K, S, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, B, pH, Electrical conductivity, and organic carbon.

Overview

  • Conservation Agriculture – promote minimum soil disturbance, maintain permanent soil cover & diversify plant species or crop rotation. Pioneers – USA, Brazil, Canada, Argentina & Australia. Conservation agriculture focus on soil carbon storage, decrease GHG, promote sustainable agriculture, preserve environment, biodiversity, and natural resources.
  • Farmers follow zero tillage – without ploughing and direct planting.
  • Burning crop residue removes nutrients form soil and exposes CO, CO2 in atmosphere along with toxic gases causing pollution.
  • In situ management of crop residue – compost production, bioenergy production and biochar production – improves fertility.
  • Promotion of Agricultural Mechanization for In-Situ Management of Crop Residue in Punjab, Haryana, UP & Delhi approved in 2018 - 19- protect environment of pollution and prevent loss of nutrients.
  • Integrated Nutrient Management – maintain soil fertility at optimum level for organic, inorganic, and biological components & reduce synthetic fertilizers.
  • Integrated Pest Management – cultural, physical, biological, and chemical methods of pest control.
  • Include legumes in crops – improve nitrogen fixation, phosphorous availability by rhizospore modification, close growing, and dense canopy, reduce impact of falling rain drops and minimize erosion, intercropping and act as weed suppressant, reduce subsoil compaction by deep root system.
  • Climate Smart Agriculture- food strategy for changing climates – increase productivity and income, adopt resilience, and reduce GHG emissions.
  • Resource Conservation technology – minimize input loss and improve input efficiency – 4R approach – Right source, right time, right dose, and right place.
  • Sustainable agriculture brings nutritional security, ecological balance, and social security.

- Published/Last Modified on: December 24, 2020

Agriculture/Agro Industries, Govt. Schemes/Projects, Kurukshetra

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