Sustainable Solid and Liquid Waste Management, Education and Rural Transformation (October 2021)

⪻ Articles ⪼

Sustainable Solid and Liquid Waste Management

  • Launch of Swachh Bharat Mission to eliminate open defecation, improve cleanliness and eradicate manual scavenging.
  • In India, the waste generation is projected to increase to 165 million tonnes by 2031.
  • On daily basis, around 72,000 million litres of sewage are generated in India.
  • Swachhta Hi Sewa campaigns are being organized at regular intervals.
  • 55 % of the global population at present lives in urban areas and this is expected to increase to 68 % by 2050.
  • The world՚s cities generated two billion tonnes of municipal solid waste in 2016 and this is further projected to increase to 3.4 billion tonnes by 2050.
  • In India around 400 million people living in urban areas generate 62 million tonnes of municipal solid waste annually.
  • 80 % of the waste is disposed of at dump yards in an unhygienic and unscientific manner.
  • In 2015, the waste sector contributed to 4 % of India՚s total GHG emission.
  • According to WHO, there are 22 types of diseases associated with improper management of municipal solid waste.
  • Untreated sewage results in:
    • Agricultural contamination
    • Environmental degradation
    • A plethora of diseases such as Cholera, Typhoid, Hepatitis A, Dysentery, Schistosomiasis among others.

Govt. Initiatives for Efficient and Sustainable Management of Waste

  • Launch of Swachh Bharat Mission.
  • National Institute of Urban Affairs has conducted several workshops for Urban Local Bodies.
  • The Govt. of India also revamped the Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules 2000 and notifies the new Solid Waste Management Rules in 2016.
  • Swachh Survekshan is an annual survey of cleanliness conducted by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs.
  • Swachhta Hi Sewa campaigns are organized at regular intervals.
  • The Ministry of Urban Development launched the ‘Compost Banao, Compost Apnao’ scheme.
  • Ministry of New and Renewable Energy is promoting Waste-to-Energy technologies.
  • Launch of the Gobardhan scheme under SBM (Rural) to convert biodegradable waste into biogas.
  • To ensure universal water supply in all 4,378 Urban Local Bodies, the Govt. of India launched the Jal Jeevan Mission (Urban) in Budget 2021.
  • The state of Maharashtra generates the highest quantity of municipal solid waste followed by Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Gujarat.
  • Chandigarh, Chhattisgarh, and Telangana process significant quantities of waste.
  • Chandigarh treats 100 % of its sewage while Delhi, Punjab and Haryana also treat a significant portion of their liquid waste.
  • Pune has presented a decentralized model of waste management.
  • Nagpur Municipal Corporation has privatized collection and transportation of solid waste.
  • NITI Aayog introduced the concept of Hybrid Annuity Model to promote Public Private Partnerships and prepare Model Concession Agreements.

Way Ahead

  • The Hybrid Annuity Model offers a plethora of benefits to both civic bodies and private players.
  • Efficient Waste Management helps in attaining the SDGs.
  • SDG 11 focuses on inclusive and sustainable urbanization in all countries.
  • SDG 12 focuses on ensuring responsible consumption and production patterns across the world to minimize waste generation.
  • The Reduce, Reuse and Recycle minimize the use and consumption of resources on the planet.
  • Malaysia introduced the concept of Waste Eco Park (WEP) to centralize recycling companies from various industries.
  • Green sole is an organization which collects discarded footwear in Navi Mumbai and refurbishes them to provide recycled footwear to the lesser privileged sections of society.
  • Bulk Waste Generators in Bengaluru are required to register on an online portal “BG Net” , where all information such as the quantity of waste produced, method of on-site composting, etc. is recorded.

Education and Rural Transformation

  • A little over 25 % of all rural 19-year-olds were attending schools in 2001.
  • The share of 18-year-olds in schools and colleges had gone up to 70 % by 2016.
  • Girls have closed the gap with boys in rural areas.
  • 94 % of girls and 95 % of boys are enrolled in school at the age of 14 years.
  • 68 % of girls and 72 % of boys are still in school by age 18.

Challenges Faced in Rural India

Financial issues, Lack of Guidance, Lack of Infrastructure and Faculty, Gender Inequality, shortage of quality teachers, etc.

Elements of Rural Development

  • Employment and Income Opportunities.
  • Increase in Productivity of Rural Labour Force.
  • Education Develops Leadership.

Way Ahead

  • Holistic education programmes such as DISKHA or SWAYAM enhance educational opportunities for children.
  • Corporates play an integral role in supporting govt. schools with smart learning facilities and better infrastructure.
  • Holistic educational growth could provide much needed economic and social progress.
  • Women education is the most powerful tool that allows women to break stereotypes and barriers of deep-rooted gender bias and inequality.
  • Women have important role to play when it comes to leading their families, communities, and the nation.

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