Tiranga Disease & Viral Diseases in Tomato (DTE 1 - 15 July 2019)

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Tiranga Disease & Viral Diseases in Tomato

  • Tiranga disease has stirred up similar panic and helplessness among farmers in Maharashtra.
  • Across Pune, Satara, Ahmednagar and Nashik.
  • Tomatoes turning abnormally yellow, ripening prematurely getting mushy and deformed.
  • Crop loss up to 90 % due to the disease.
  • Some growers reported crop loss of 50 to 60 % .
  • The nomenclature tiranga (tricolour) emerged after farmers alleged infected tomatoes had three colour stripes: Red, green, white and yellow in patches.

Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR) , Bengaluru

  • A premier institute of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Pune.
  • The virus research laboratory is exclusively engaged in research on virus and virus-like diseases of fruits and vegetables.
  • A case of multiple viral infection.
  • Samples collected (by Mahatma Phule Krishi Vishwavidyalaya) from Satara district in Ahmednagar were examined which helped the dust began to settle down the mid-May.
  • Detection of cucumber mosaic virus, groundnut bud necrosis virus and tomato mosaic virus in the samples.
  • IIHR reported the presence of three additional viruses:
    • Tomato vein distortion virus.
    • Tomato chlorosis virus.
    • Tomato leaf curl (New Delhi virus) .
  • IARI samples were infected with:
    • Pepper mottle virus.
    • Potato virus Y.
    • Scientists research
    • A trachoides can transmit Begomovirus to tomato, potato and bell pepper.
  • Intensive breeding and cultivation under controlled environment may have created ideal conditions for the spread of viruses and their vectors.
  • Potato gets infected by 54 viruses and Brinjal by 44 as far as the comparison between the two is concerned.
  • Presence of so many viruses in the tomato crops is due to:
    • Susceptibility to Begomovirus.
      • A group of 400-odd plant virus species.
    • Intensive breeding.
    • Mono-cropping under controlled environment.
  • Other viral diseases:
    • Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) .
    • Pepino mosaic virus (pepMv) .
    • Tomato brown Rugose fruit virus (TOBRFV)
      • Spread to China, Mexico, Jordan, Italy and Germany.
      • Appeared for the first time in Israel in 2014.
      • So far not reported in India.

Needs to be Done

  • Prevention is the only way out.
  • Adoption of good management practices.
  • Buying seeds from reputed sources.
  • Procuring healthy seedlings.
  • Maintaining plant spatial distance.
  • Using fertilizers, fungicides, antibiotics and water judiciously.
  • Proper dispose of infected tomatoes and old crops.
  • Making all possible efforts to create a hygienic environment for all the crops.

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