Wassenaar Arrangement, NPT & CTBT (Part - 1) (Download PDF)

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Next Week! ! Monsoon Mission 📹. Weapons of Mass Destruction: By type, Biological, Chemical, Nuclear, Radiological, Proliferation, Nuclear, Chemical, Missiles. Doomsday Clock: Represents the likelihood of a man-made global catastrophe – threat of global nuclear war.

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Wassenaar Arrangement, NPT, CTBT (Current Affairs/GS 2018) (In English)

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Wassenaar Arrangement, NPT, CTBT and 4 nuclear suppliers group

Image of Weapons of Mass Destruction

Image of Weapons of Mass Destruction

Image of Weapons of Mass Destruction

  • International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN) -global civil society coalition working to promote adherence to and full implementation of Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (NBPZ – 2017)
  • Nuclear latency or Nuclear threshold state: Condition of a country possessing the technology to quickly build nuclear weapons, without having actually yet done so, Japan Option
  • 📝 Nuclear disarmament: Act of reducing or eliminating nuclear weapons; it includes Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, Peace Action, Greenpeace, Soka Gakkai International, and International Physicians for Prevention of Nuclear War, Mayors for Peace, Global Zero, International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons, and Nuclear Age Peace Foundation
  • Nuclear terrorism: Act of terrorism in which a person or people belonging to a terrorist organization detonates a nuclear device
  • Nuclear-weapons-free zone (NWFZ): Agreement which a group of states has freely established by treaty or convention that bans the use, development, or deployment of nuclear weapons in a given area
  • Nuclear-free zone: Area which has banned both nuclear power and nuclear weapons, nuclear waste and nuclear propulsion
  • 👌 No first use (NFU): Pledge or a policy by a nuclear power not to use nuclear weapons as a means of warfare unless first attacked by an adversary using nuclear weapons. Earlier, it was for chemical and biological warfare. China declared its NFU policy in 1964. India gave its policy of no first use of nuclear weapons in 2003.
  • Second-strike capability: Country’s assured ability to respond to a nuclear attack with powerful nuclear retaliation against the attacker

📝 NPT (Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons)

  • NPT is a landmark international treaty which aims to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to achieve nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament.
  • Opened for signature in 1968
  • Came in force 1970
  • 1995 – extended indefinitely
  • Total – 191 states with 5 nuclear weapon states (China, France, Russia, UK, USA)
  • India’s position: Either those five too denuclearize or everyone has the same rights to have nuclear weapons.
  • Later, India, Pakistan and Israel could be recognized as members

📝 Why India has a separate stand?

  • India shares it borders with Pakistan and China (nuclear states)
  • Energy Independence - India is dependent on import of energy and is not self-reliant. Nuclear energy provides alternative for India to be self-reliant
Image of borders with Pakistan and China (nuclear states)

Image of Borders with Pakistan and China (nuclear States)

Image of borders with Pakistan and China (nuclear states)

Map of nuclear armed states of the world

Map of Nuclear Armed States of the World

Map of nuclear armed states of the world

CTBT

  • Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is the Treaty banning all nuclear explosions - everywhere, by everyone.
  • Treaty was negotiated at the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva and adopted by UN General Assembly
  • 182 nations have signed (most recent - Trinidad and Tobago)
  • 154 nations have ratified the treaty (most recent – Ghana)
  • Signature indicates that the country accepts the treaty. It commits not to take any actions that would undermine the treaty’s purposes
  • Ratification symbolizes official sanction of a treaty to make it legally binding for the government of a country

👌 3 countries have carried out nuclear explosions after the 1996:

  • India in 1998
  • Pakistan in 1998
  • Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) in 2006 and 2009

Verification under CTBT

  • 👌 Monitoring stations – 337 IMS with
  • Seismic: detect shockwaves
  • Hydro-acoustic: detect acoustic signals
  • Infrasound: detect low frequency sound waves
  • Radionuclide: detect radionuclide particles and noble gas
  • Data analysis
  • Onsite inspections

Wassenaar Arrangement Admits India – What is Wassenaar Arrangement? What are 4 Important Arms Control Regimes?

  • India’s stature in non-proliferation increased and helps to acquire critical technologies
Image of Arms Control

Image of Arms Control

Image of Arms Control

📝 Strategic Significant

  • Will give India boost in acquiring NSG and Australian Group membership
  • China stalled India’s entry into the 48-nation NSG & is not a member of the Wassenaar Arrangement.
  • Provides India access to a host of conventional arms and dual-use goods and technologies, most importantly, a host of ‘intrusion software’ technologies, which form a part of the mass-surveillance systems.
  • Elevate India’s diplomatic profile.
  • India is coveted market for foreign defence companies due to desire for military modernization and upgradation of its internal security apparatus.
  • Wassenaar Arrangement prevented companies for trading with India. This should be a big help.
  • China is not a member of the WA means that, hypothetically speaking, if it decides to apply for the WA membership in the future, India will have a say in the decision – just as currently China has on India’s application of NSG membership.
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Wassenaar Arrangement, NPT, CTBT (Current Affairs/GS 2018) (In Hindi)

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Wassenaar Arrangement, NPT, CTBT and 4 nuclear suppliers group

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- Published/Last Modified on: January 15, 2018

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