Wassenaar Arrangement, NPT & CTBT (Part - 2)

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👌 Four Important Arms Control Regimes. Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) : Nuclear supplier countries that seek to prevent nuclear proliferation by controlling the export of materials, equipment, and technology that can be used to manufacture nuclear weapons.

Wassenaar Arrangement, NPT, CTBT (Current Affairs/GS 2018) (in English)
  • Founded in response to the Indian nuclear test in May 1974 and first met in November 1975.
  • Signatories of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) seeked to limit the export of nuclear equipment, materials, or technology.
  • Another benefit was that non-NPT and non-Zangger Committee nations, specifically France, could be brought in.
  • As of 2017, the NSG has 48 participating governments. Initially NSG had seven participating governments: Canada, West Germany, France, Japan, Soviet Union, UK & USA.

👌 India is Not a Signatory to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Making India a Perennial Non-Nuclear-Weapons State

  • Since many of the regimes specifically target India, making them less of ‘technology control regimes’ , and more of ‘technology denial regimes’ .
  • Since India has a faultless non-proliferation record, there is global recognition of India՚s responsible behavior and its potential contribution to the maintenance of nuclear norms.
  • United States and Europe are thus recognizing that NPT would face credibility crisis without India՚s participation. Membership to the MTCR and WA is reflective of this thinking.
Map of United States and Europe

Following Countries Support India՚s NSG Bids

Map of Countries Support India՚s NSG Bids

Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR)

Missile Technology Control Regime
  • Informal and voluntary partnership among 35 countries to prevent the proliferation of missile and unmanned aerial vehicle technology capable of carrying above 500 kg payload for more than 300 km.
  • Established in April 1987 by the G7 countries: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, UK & USA
  • India formally applied for membership to the group in June 2015, with active support from France & USA, and officially became a member on 27 June 2016 with the consensus of the 34 member nations.

Australia Group

Map of Australia Group
  • Australia Group established in 1985 identifies exports, which need to be controlled to prevent spread of chemical and biological weapons.
  • India is not yet a member.
  • The group, initially consisting of 15 members, held its first meeting in Brussels, Belgium, in September 1989. With the incorporation of Mexico on August 12,2013, it now has 42 members.
  • During a state visit to India in November 2010, US president Obama announced US support for India՚s bid for permanent membership to UN Security Council as well as India՚s entry to NSG and Australia Group
  • India is expected to soon become the member of Australia group after it joins Wassenaar Arrangement

Wassenaar Arrangement

  • The Wassenaar Arrangement was formed in 1996 to succeed the Cold War-era Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls.
  • The name comes from Wassenaar, a suburb of The Hague, where the agreement to start such a multi-lateral cooperation was reached in 1995.
  • WA has 42 members, the latest entrant being India. With the exception of China, all the other permanent members of the U. N. Security Council are signatories of the WA, which is headquartered in Vienna.
  • Goal is to “promote transparency and greater responsibility in transfers of conventional arms and dual-use goods and technologies” with participants required to “ensure that transfers of these items do not contribute to the development or enhancement of military capabilities which undermine the goal” .

📝 👌 What Are Wassenaar Control Lists?

WA Control Lists are subject to ratification by the participants they provide information on sensitive dual-use goods and technologies WA members have agreed to exchange information. The WA members report such transfers and denials of controlled items to non-participants.

  • Category 1 Special Materials and Related Equipment
  • Category 2 Materials Processing
  • Category 3 Electronics.
  • Category 4 Computers.
  • Category 5 - Part 1 Telecommunications.
  • Category 5 - Part 2 “Information Security”
  • Category 6 Sensors and ″ Lasers
  • Category 7 Navigation and Avionics
  • Category 8 Marine
  • Category 9 Aerospace and Propulsion

Critiques of WA

  • Critiques argue that:
  • Arrangement restricts western companies and governments from supplying crucial technologies to emerging markets.
  • Developed economies can use less developed countries as Guinea Pigs for their cyber security research by supplying them with intrusive technologies that could be used for mass surveillance.
  • Electronic Frontier Foundation, a digital rights group, has accused USA of going for narrower restrictions on technology transfer.

Background on Indian Admittance to Wassenaar Arrangement

  • WA in December 2013 amended its export control clauses to deny non-member states many new technologies, including ‘intrusion software’ to avoid misuse by authoritarian and dictatorial regimes- hurting India which aimed to strengthen domestic surveillance post the 2008 Mumbai attacks.
  • Indian diplomats worked their way through negotiations for the past ten years, with many important countries including USA, UK, and France, supporting India՚s bid.

Way Forward

  • The ultimate goal of India is to secure NSG membership with membership of the Australia Group an intermediate milestone.
  • Post-WA and post the Dokalam crisis there is likely to be further hardening of the Chinese stand on India՚s NSG bid.

Focus Areas in News (Week 2 - 2018) !

  • Haj 2018 agreement
  • PIO conference
  • New Online Vendor Registration System by Indian Railways
  • 108 Years Old Monorail - operational at National Rail Museum
  • Matunga Railway Station - Limca Book of Records - All women staff (women empowerment)
  • Smart Freight Operation Optimization & Real Time Information (SFOORTI) Application by Indian Railways

Forthcoming Lectures

  • International Court of Justice 📹
  • Urban Waste Management 📹
  • NDMA Guidelines 📹
Wassenaar Arrangement, NPT, CTBT (Current Affairs/GS 2018) (in Hindi)

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