What is TCV? WHO Approves Indian Typhoid Vaccine, Typbar for Global Use (Download PDF)

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The World Health Organisation (WHO) has given its pre-qualification to Typbar Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine (TVC) developed by Hyderabad based Bharat Biotech for global use. Typbar TCV is world՚s first typhoid vaccine clinically proven to be administered to children from six months of age to adults.

Map of Prevalence of Typhoid in India
  • It confers long-term protection against typhoid fever.
  • The vaccine has been evaluated in Human Challenge Studies at Oxford University.

Significance of Pre-Qualification

  • The WHO pre-qualification enables procurement and supplies of this life-saving vaccine to
    1. UNICEF
    2. Pan-American Health Organisation (PAHO)
    3. GAVI (vaccine alliance) supported countries
  • This also paves the way for WHO member countries to introduce the Typbar TCV into their immunization programs.

    What Are Types of Vaccines?

    There are several different types of vaccines.

    • Live-attenuated vaccines
    • Inactivated vaccines
    • Subunit, recombinant, polysaccharide, and conjugate vaccines
    • Toxoid vaccines

    Subunit, Recombinant, Polysaccharide, and Conjugate Vaccines

    • Subunit, recombinant, polysaccharide, and conjugate vaccines use specific pieces of the germ - like its protein, sugar, or capsid (a casing around the germ) .
    • As they use only specific pieces of the germ, they give a very strong immune response that is targeted to key parts of the germ. They can also be used on almost everyone- including people with weakened immune systems and long-term health problems.
    • A conjugate vaccine is created by covalently attaching a poor antigen to a strong antigen thereby eliciting a stronger immunological response to the poor antigen. Most commonly, the poor antigen is a polysaccharide that is attached to strong protein antigen.

    What Are the Advantages of TCV (Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine) ?

  • TCVs are innovative products having longer-lasting immunity than older vaccines and require fewer doses.
  • They can be given to young children through routine childhood immunization programs.
  • TCVs have been recommended by who՚s Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (WHO-SAGE) .

What is Typhoid?

  • Typhoid fever is caused by bacterium Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) .
  • It infects humans due to contaminated food and beverages from sewage and other infected humans.
  • Its symptoms include
  • Fever
  • Fatigue
  • Headache
  • Abdominal pain
  • Diarrhoea or constipation

Global Facts About Typhoid

  • One-third of global population is at risk of typhoid fever, which results in loss of work and wages, lowered pregnancy outcomes and impaired the physical and cognitive development of children.
  • According to International Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) estimates in 2016, there were approximately 12 million cases of typhoid fever resulting in around 130,000 deaths.
  • Urbanisation and climate change have potential to further increase global burden of typhoid.

- Published/Last Modified on: February 12, 2018


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