Women Empowerment - Yojana October 2018 (Part - 2) (Download PDF)

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Breaking the Shackles of Financial Deprivation: In 2006, RBI has to allow banks to engage BCs & business facilitators (BFs) as intermediaries for providing financial services, especially in rural areas.

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Women Empowerment - Yojana October 2018 (In English)

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Yojana Oct 2018 edition on women empowerment

  • In F. Y. 2007 - 08,2 funds – Financial Inclusion Fund & Financial Inclusion Technology Fund were initiated.

Policy Recommendations

  • B/w 2011 - 17,77 % of females above 15 years are reported to have bank a/c, which is 51 % increase from 2011 (Global Findex 2017).

Literacy Programs

  • Informal borrowing is still imp. issue: 30 % females (% age 15+) borrowed from friends & relatives.

  • This visibly shows lack of attitudinal shift of people & various literacy programs like Financial Literacy.

Anganwadi System

  • India has estimated 1.053 million Anganwadi centres.

  • Anganwadi workers can be given basic banking training which will give them opportunity to act as Banking Correspondents (BC).

Ensuring Equality for the Minority Women

  • Universal Quranic injunction for Muslim women which places them on par w/men in community.

  • Prophet created revolution in that society. They lifted women from well of despair in which society had sunk them & for 1st time gave them rights; right to property among others.

  • Quran showed way to women’s empowerment.

  • Instead of adopting healthy practices, people borrowed from other religions & culture only their patriarchal values.

  • Example: Dowry became practice, which is totally prohibited in Islam.

  • There is no concept whatsoever of caste in Islam. Islam negates caste hierarchy. According to NSSO figures, 41 % Muslims consider themselves as OBCs in 2004 - 05.

📝 Syeda Hameed:

  • She is Padma Shri Awardee & Indian social & women’s rights activist, educationist, writer & former member of Planning Commission of India.

  • She is founder trustee of Women’s Initiative for Peace in South Asia (WIPSA) & Centre for Dialogue & Reconciliation & former member of National Commission for Women (1997 - 2000).

  • She has served Maulana Azad National Urdu University (MANUU) as its Chancellor.

  • Exercise led to landmark report Voice of Voiceless: Status of Muslim Women in India 2000, which contextualized these matters.

  • Muslim Personal Law Board, influential national level body of cleris from all schools of theology, was headed by distinguished scholar Maulana Ali Miyan, man open to discussion abt. gender in Islam & sensitive to misuse of Islam in profligate manner in which Muslim personal law was used to entrench male hegemony & stranglehold over women.

  • In 2001 I co-founded w/Dr. Sughra Mehdi, Muslim Women Forum; its founding Chair was Begum Saeeda Khurshid daughter of President Dr. Zakir Husain.

  • Another series of meetings & hearings were held across country in some of same cities & led to Report w/aspirational title, My Voice Shall be Heard.

  • 1 year after My Voice Will Be Heard, new govt. decided to constitute High Level Committee under Justice Rajinder Sachar to study status of SRC (Socio Economic Communities) primarily Muslims. Its landmark report was released in 2007. Findings revealed dismal state of Muslim community which since last 67 years had fallen behind traditionally backward Dalits & Tribals in many respects.

  • 👌 Bharatiya Muslim Mahila Andolan was formed in 2006 & served as imp. advocacy grp.

  • 📝 In 2009 case of divorce petition of Shabana Bano & Imran Khan of Gwalior, SC ruled that woman under Section 125 CrPc would be entitled to claim maintenance after Iddat so long as she doesn’t remarry.

  • 📝 SC’s landmark judgement on triple talaq seeks to obtain rights provided to women in Qur’an. It was Justice Kurien Joseph, who along w/Justice R F Nariman & Justice Uday Umesh Lalit who caught contradiction in minority judgement opposing prohibition of triple talaq & made this statement: ‘After introduction of Muslim Personal Law Application Act, 1937, no practice against tenets of Quran is permissible. There can’t be any constitutional protection to such practice & my disagreement w/learned Chief Justice for constitutional protection given to triple talaq. ‘

  • 👌 Muslim Women’s Forum held exhibition & colloquium titled ’ Path breakers: 20thCentury Muslim Women of India’

  • Sharifa Hamid Ali, born in Surat, sat in Constituent Assembly & represented India at UN Commission on Status of Women & prepared model nikahnama. Mofida Ahmed was MLA from Jorhat in Assam, Aziz Imam, Anis Kidwai & Qudsia Aizaz Rasool were members of Parliament, Qudsia Zaidi started 1st professional theatre in post-Independence India. Surayya Tyabji designed Indian flag.

Empowering Tribal Women

  • There are around 705 Scheduled Tribes (STs) notified in India. Apart from this, around 75 Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs) are present.

  • ST community constituted around 8.6 % of total population as per Census 2011.

  • Ministry of Tribal Affairs (MoTA) was carved out of Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment in 1999 w/mission to enhance socio economic status of tribal population in India.

  • National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (NCST) was established thru amendment to Article 338 of constitution by way of Constitution (89th Amendment) Act, 2003.

Access to Quality Education

  • Eklavya Model Residential Schools (EMRSs), focuses on improving access to quality education.

  • More than 50 % of students in these schools are girls.

  • Ashram Schools where focus is on ST girls.

  • Pre & Post Matric scholarships for ST students, majority of whom are girls is to enable them to pursue their education till 12th standard.

👌 Schemes for Economic Development

  • National Scheduled Tribes Finance & Development Corporation is apex organization under Ministry of Tribal Affairs for economic development of STs.

  • Corporation is having exclusive scheme for economic development of ST women titled ‘Adivasi Mahila Sashaktikaran Yojana’ (AMSY).

  • Corporation provides financial assistance upto 90 % to projects w/outlay of ₹1 lakh at concessional rate of interest of 4%.

Right to Forest Produce

Scheduled Tribes & Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006, provides for full & unrestricted participation of women at all levels.

In Pursuit of Inclusive Growth in India

Stylized Facts for India

  • Already low female labour force participation rate (FLFPR) in India is declining further when compared to any other region in world.

  • Delhi has 17 % FLFPR w/24 % in other metros while, Ludhiana has highest male participation rate (83%) but mere 12 % FLFPR.

Determinants of FWPR

  • 30 % reservation in govt. jobs in some states (Assam, Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra & Tamilnadu) didn’t seem to have significant impact w/public jobs shrinking.

  • Female political representation promotes female employment due to access to public goods like paved roads, primary health centres & blanks.


  • Hostel for Working Women Scheme was brought in as effort towards creating safe working environment & providing affordable accommodation for working women away from their home-town.

  • Maternity Benefit Act, 1961 was amended in 2017 (Maternity Benefit Amendment Bill 2017) to primarily include increased paid maternity leave from 12 to 26 weeks, provide option of ‘work from home’ for women after 26 weeks & included provision of crèche facility & leave for mothers adopting children.

Empowering Women: Legal Provisions

  • Present Article seeks to address some of salient issues which are discussed by Constitution Bench of SC of India in recent years.

  • It is playing extremely positive role in examining laws which have become archaic, several of which are provisions of Indian Penal Code, 1860, including Section 376 which deals w/rape, Section 377 which deals w/sodomy & sexual relationship b/w homosexuals & Section 497 which deals w/adultery.

  • 👌 Section 497 penalizes any man who has illicit relations w/wife of another man w/o consent or connivance of that man.

  • If man has relations outside marriage, neither him nor woman w/whom he has such relations can be prosecuted. This section has continued w/o any progressive amendment since it was 1st drafted in 1860 by Macaulay.

  • Recommendations by 42nd Law Report, 1971 & Mali math Committee Report, 2003, to amend definition to make it gender neutral, have failed to materialize.

  • It has come to light in Joseph Shine v. UOI, wherein petition challenging constitutional validity of provision was filed in SC of India.

  • Bench observed that in provision, concept of gender neutrality is absent & it creates dent on individual identity of woman when emphasis is laid on consent or connivance of husband & time has come when society must realize that woman is equal to man in every field & this provision appears to be archaic.

Right to Property

  • Amendment to Hindu Succession Act, 1956 gave women right to share in joint family property of both, parents & in-laws.

  • 👌 Under Chotanagpur Tenancy Act, 1908, women who married outside community were said to have ‘lost their right to parental property’.

Right to Religious Identity

Parsi Laws:

  • Children of Parsi man married outside community, can become Parsi. Children of Parsi woman married outside community can’t become Parsi.

  • Parsi woman married outside community is not allowed to visit Tower of Silence & attend her parents’ funeral rituals. This was challenged by Parsi woman, Goolrukh Gupta in Gujarat High Court, wherein Court upheld decision to debar Parsi woman from performing religious practices by observing that in all religions, whether Christianity, Parsi or Judaism, religious identity of woman shall merge into that of her husband.

Physical Molestation

  • Prior to 2013, definition of ‘rape under Section 375 of Indian Penal Code, 1860 was narrow one, including only sexual intercourse w/I its ambit.

  • It was after infamous Nirbhaya gang-rape cases that Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2013 (Anti-Rape Bill) was passed under which definition was enlarged to include acts like penetration, insertion of objects.

  • Juvenile Justice (Care & Protection of Children) Act, 2015 was passed which provided that juvenile, 16 years or older, who commits heinous offence (offence punishable w/imprisonment of 7 years or more) will be tried as adult.

Common Civil Code

  • Uniform Civil Code which governs personal matters of all citizens irrespective of their religion is linchpin of true secularism.

  • There is need for such code as various personal laws prevalent in India discriminate against women & have long way to move towards promoting gender parity.

  • 👌 Article 44 (Directive Principle of State Policy) of Constitution of India articulates provision for Uniform Civil Code. It states that ‘The State shall endeavor to secure for citizens uniform civil code throughout territory of India.

Indian Women in Asian Games 2018

  • 👌 Vinesh Phogat:

    • She won gold medal for wrestling in Women’s Freestyle 50 kgs.

    • She became 1st Indian woman wrestler to win Gold in both Commonwealth & Asian games.

  • 👌 Rahi Sarnobat:

    She won gold in shooting in Women’s 25 meter pistol & became 1st Indian women to win gold medal in shooting in Asian Games.

  • 👌 Swapna Barman:

    • She won gold in Women’s Hepthalon.

    • She won gold metal at Asian Games 2018.

  • India Women’s National Kabaddi team won silver for Kabaddi.

  • 👌 Dutee Chand is 3rd Indian woman to ever qualify for Women’s 100 metres event at Summer Olympic Games.

  • 👌 Sudha Singh won silver medal in Women’s 3000 metres Steeplechase.

  • 👌 Neena Varakil won silver in Women’s Long Jump.

  • 👌 P. V. Sindhu

    • Won silver in Women’s Long Jump.

    • Pusarla Venkata Sindhu became 1st Indian woman to win Olympic silver medal & 1 of 2 Indian badminton players to ever win Olympic medal – other being Saina Nehwal.

  • 👌 Divya Kakran won bronze medal for wrestling in Women’s Freestyle 68 kgs.

  • 👌 Ankita Raina won bronze medal in Lawn Tennis in Women’s Singles.

  • 👌 Heena Sidhu won bronze in Women’s 10 metre Air Pistol for Shooting.

  • 👌 Deepika Pallikal:

    • She won bronze in Women’s Singles in Squash.

    • She is 1st Indian to break into top 10 in PSA Women’s rankings in 2012.

  • 👌 Joshna Chinappa won bronze medal in Single’s Squash.

  • 👌 Sania Nehwal: Attaining world ranking of no. 1, she has represented Indian 3 times in Olympics, winning bronze medal 2nd time.

  • 👌 Seema Punia won bronze medal in Athletics in Women’s Discus Throw.

  • Women’s National Field Hockey Team won silver in Field Hockey Tournament.

Meeting the Challenges of Gender Empowerment

Defining Empowerment

  • World Bank (2002) identifies empowerment as being abt. increasing people’s choices & freedom of action to participate in, negotiate w/influence, control & hold accountable institutions that affect their lives.

SHGs: Micro – Credit & Micro – Empowerment

  • SHGs emerged in late 1980’s & early 90’s as strategy to address poverty & gender-based discrimination faced by women in developing world.

Women, Health & Development

  • Low dietary intake, repeated pregnancy & location & infections were major factors responsible for under-nutrition & anaemia in women.
Image of Changes In Physical Activity 1960 and 2010

Image of Changes In Physical Activity 1960 and 2010

Image of Changes In Physical Activity 1960 and 2010

Nutrition Status of Women

  • Under – nutrition rates are higher in northern & eastern states.

  • Over-nutrition rates are higher in women living in southern & western states of India.

  • There is not any increase in energy intake in women over years, but there is steep reduction in physical activity.

  • Over-nutrition is associated w/increased risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as hypertension & diabetes.

Anaemia in Women

In India, prevalence of anaemia is high bcoz of:

  • Low overall dietary intake, poor iron & folic acid intake

  • Poor bio-availability of iron in phytate fibre-rich Indian diet resulting in widespread iron & folic acid deficiencies

  • Chronic blood loss due to infections such as malaria & hook worm infestations.


  • Indian women had & continue to have highest prevalence of anaemia in world. 3-pronged strategy of dietary diversification & use of iron-fortified iodized salt, IFA supplementation & detecting & treating anemia will accelerate pace of reduction in anaemia.

Communication: Overarching Role in Women Empowerment

  • Women as communicators, whatever may be their numeral strength, are gradually coming forward & raising their voice. They tend to give new approach, perspective, & edge to gender issues, & are unravelling stories of sufferings & human rights violations w/sensitivity.

  • National Policy for Women (NPW), 2016, is landmark document, which pronounces resolve realizing constructive engagement of women in nation development.

  • National Mission for Empowerment of Women (NMEW) Scheme 2016 - 17, is combined strategy for inter-sectoral convergence of programs for women, w/use of multiple communication tools in advocacy campaigns.

  • Stree Shakti’ 1-hr. show on DD National, highlights success stories of women achievers.

  • DD News airs ‘Tejaswini’, which has crossed more than 100 episodes.

  • 👌 ‘Main Kuch Bhi Kar Sakti Hoon’, another program on Doordarshan, has earned many laurels as being one of most watched shows in world, w/viewership of over 400 million across 50 countries. Program is translated in 14 languages & 170 episodes are over. It is transmitted over by 240 radio channels & Internet as well.

  • PM launched ‘Beti Bachhao Beti Padhao’ program at Panipat in Haryana in 2015, one of worst affected districts in State, w/abysmally low Sex Ratio at Birth (SRB).

Map of Panipat in Haryana in 2015

Map of Panipat in Haryana in 2015

Map of Panipat in Haryana in 2015

  • Community participation was ensured by celebrating events such as birth of girl child or school enrolment drives like ‘School Chalein Hum’, ‘Aao School Chalein’, etc.

  • Other Important Notes

PM on Woman Power

  • Nation will not tolerate those committing rapes. W/this point in view Parliament has made provision of strictest punishment by passing Criminal Act Amendment Bill. Those guilty of rape will get min. sentence of 10 years & those found guilty of raping girls below age of 12 years will be awarded death sentence.
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Women Empowerment - Yojana October 2018 (In Hindi)

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Yojana Oct 2018 edition on women empowerment

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- Published/Last Modified on: October 26, 2018


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