World Bank: Aid Countries to Efficiently Use Coal and Alternate Sources (Download PDF)

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World Bank and other development lenders like Asian Development Bank (ABD) will help countries including India to shift away from coal for energy. Even if coal is uses its will be used in more efficient technologies. This was proposed by the World Coal Association. This will be done by financing green energy, alternate fuel, and improved efficieny projects.


Key Aspects

  • Coal is strength of developing countries for meeting their energy demands.
  • In absence of any funding countries, invest in in efficient and polluting sub-critical thermal plants. These generate much higher quantities of CO2 and particulate matter (PM) emissions.
  • Even if poorer countries push for renewable energy, they are not going to do away with coal in overall energy mix.
  • In India, all new coal projects use much better super critical or USC technology.
  • These lenders will facilitate countries to adopt more efficient and less polluting super critical and ultra-super critical (USC) plants technologies.


  • Super critical and ultra-super critical (USC) plants technologies have capability to significantly decrease the CO2 emissions and virtually eliminate PM emissions.
  • Existing sub-critical projects will be seen on a case-by-case basis- either upgraded or shut down and replaced.
  • Countries will decrease their emissions from coal use while they work on replaceing coal with alternate sources of fuel.
  • Help counties in meeting their target provided in Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) - part of target agreed on in the “Paris Agreement on Climate Change” for decreasing the emissions from coal power plants.

Sub Critical and Super Critical Power

Plants Sub Critical Power Plants

  • Sub critical Power plant requires constant evaporation at lower pressure.
  • The system is operated only with natural assisted circulation. Example of this system is the drum-type steam generator.

Super Critical Power Plants

  • This power plant operates above the critical condition (in pressure) .
  • In this plant has variable evaporation - evaporator & super heater thus automatically adjust to operational requirements- producing optimal efficiency.
  • After supercritical pressure, there is no clear change of state between the liquid & the gaseous phase (of water) . Water reaches this state at a pressure above 22.1 Mpa.
  • This type of boiler is used in drumless steam generator.

About World Bank

  • International financial institution providing loans to developing countries for implementing capital programs.
  • Divided in two institutions: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) The International Development Association (IDA)
  • Founded in July 1944.
  • Headquartered at Washington DC, United States.
  • Motto: Working for a World Free of Poverty.
  • Goal: Reduction of poverty IBRD has 189 member countries and IDA has 173 member countries.

- Published/Last Modified on: October 24, 2016

International Relations/Organizations

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