Yojana April 2019 Handicrafts & Textiles of India (Part-2) (Download PDF)

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Perfecting Craftsmanship through Skilling: India - world’s 2nd largest producer of textiles & garments & ranks in top 3 in export of handicrafts. Skilling opportunities in various job roles like – auto loom weaver, power loom operator, Shuttleless Loom Weaver – Projectile, Beam Carrier & Loader, Fitter – auto loom weaving machine have given impetus to industry.

  • Successful efforts were made in developing 72 Qualification Packs (QPs). Out of these 71 are cleared by National Skill Qualification Committee (NSQC). These QPs constitute requirements of about 80 % of workforce engaged in textile industries.

  • TSSC is developing standards for other workforce in critical segments like wool, silk, jute, technical textiles & quality control.

  • Sector contributes abt 27 % of country’s foreign earnings due to export, 2 % to GDP & 13 % to nation’s export.

  • Handicraft exports from India increased by 1.65 % year-on-year b/w April-November, 2018 to US $2.42 billion.

  • Textile & Handicrafts industry have relied on traditional production processes that are labour intensive, involving many long, complex steps.

  • W/advent of Industry 4.0 – where digitization, WWW, Mass Customization & pace are shaping processes, these industries are positioned to spur & speed up.

  • 87 % of handloom households hail from rural India & only 13 % are from urban areas.

  • Handloom Industry plays imp. role in women empowerment due to employment of lot of women in this sector. Handloom fabric production contributes 1/5th of India’s total fabric production & US $35.34 million to total fabric export.

  • Elevating employment opportunities in textile & handicraft sectors & its allied industries, will make these sectors more prosperous. Sectors are imp. source to express art & skill in crafts & promote culture by making crafts & textile items available locally.

Khadi’s Journey: From Gandhi’s Khaddar to Fashion Symbol

  • Khadi play vital role in economic growth of nation.

  • MoU was signed w/National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT) for better design development & training at diff. Khadi institutions.

  • Interaction was organised w/CEOs of Retail Chains & Designers at WTC Mumbai. Objective was to give retail presence to Khadi in major malls & retail stores.

  • Innovation in form of ‘Khadi Mitra’ is on cards, where housewives could sell Khadi w/very nominal capital investment initially.

  • To popularize khadi brand, huge charkhas are set up at IGI Airport & Connaught place. Charkha Museum & Khadi Haat are opened at Connaught Place in New Delhi.

  • Charkha that supplemented agriculture of villagers w/dignity. Any wheel is symbolic of changing times, revolving fortunes of people & reminiscent of justice that does not discriminate b/w people or epochs of history.

  • Wheel is seen as unifier & icon of our past, present & future.

Growth and Development: Woven in Threads of Northeast

  • By value tactile industry accounts for 7 per cent of India’s industrial, 2 per cent of GDP & 15 per cent of country’s export earnings.

  • India exported $39.2 billion worth of textiles in 2017 - 18 fiscal year.

  • In terms of global ranking, India is ranked 2nd in textile export.

  • European Union is largest market for Indian textile & apparel products followed by USA.

  • In 2016 - 17, share of exports to EU was 25 per cent whereas that to use USA was 21 per cent.

  • Some of important pointers of Indian textile industry are as follows:

    • India covers 61 percent of international textile market

    • India is largest producer of jute in world

    • India is known to be third largest manufacturer of cotton across globe

    • India holds around 25 percent share in cotton yarn industry acreoss globe

    • India contributes to around 12 percent of world’s production of cotton yarn & textiles

  • India is second largest producer of silk in world, producing around 18 per cent of world’s total silk.

  • In short, India is second largest producer of fibre in world.

  • There are 23.77 lakh handlooms in country of which 16.47 lakh handlooms (69.28 per cent) are in North east region as per handloom census of 2009 - 10.

  • In fact, handicraft & textiles is among key ‘watch sectors’ of North east & development & modernization of textiles sector in North Eastern states is being given highest priority.

  • To understand craft traditions of north eastern India, one must know terrain, its people & their way of life.

  • In this area, as is in most other parts of India, crafts are not practiced as a hobby, nor are they a commercial Venture; they are very much an integral part of life & customs of people.

  • There are multiple traditional crafts prevalent in region which are governed by local conditions.

  • A common factor that binds all states is

  • Weaving –

    Major Clusters – Nokteys of Tirap in Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Assam & Khasis of Meghalaya

  • Meghalaya is known for establishing tradition of high quality weaving.

  • Arunachal Pradesh weaves are famous for their beautiful colour combinations.

  • Exceptional are Sherdukpen shawls, Apatani jackets & scarves, Adi skirts, jackets & bags, Mishmi shawls, blouses & jackets & Wancho bags & loin cloths.

  • Naga shawls, also known as Angami naga, are famous for their bright colours & bold embroidery of animal motifs.

  • Striking feature of Tripura handlooms is vertical & horizontal stripes w/scattered embroidery in different colours.

  • Monpas & Sherdukpens of Kameng, Mishmis & Khamtis of Lohit or wives of Wancho chieftains of Tirap in Arunachala Pradesh, or any of Naga tribes, or even Assamese in plains, it is women who weave unlike rest of India, where men predominate weaving profession.

  • Silk

    • Assam is 3rd largest producer of silk in country & leading among north east states.

    • On other hand, Manipur produced almost 100 per cent of country’s Oak tussar silk & is highest producer of Mulberry silk among north east states.

    • Whereas, Tripura focuses on production of only Mulberry silk w/end to end solutions.

    • Assam is home to various types of silk of which Muga is most coveted & exclusive.

  • Bamboo & Cane Craft

    Mizos (people from Mizoram) take great pride in their cane & bamboo work

  • Carpets

    • Traditional pattern of weaving is done by ‘Bhutia’ community which requires a frame & an exclusive manner of weaving.

    • Arunachal too is well known for carpets.

    • Arunachal Pradesh is divided into 3 major groups depending on their

Culture & handicrafts; Buddhist tribes consist of Sherdukpens & Monpas & also to some extent Khowa.

  • Aka & mijis comprise another group, while Membas Khambas, Khamtis & Singphos comprise last group.

  • Wooden & Metal Products

    • Sikkim brims w/beautiful monasteries, heritage buildings & temples, architecture of which is adorned w/symbols & icons carved in wood

    • Pemayangtse Monastery is affine illustration of carved wooden sculptures & wood carvings.

    • Wood carving is a significant hobby of Wancho of Tirap.

Image of Wooden Carving

Image of Wooden Carving

Image of Wooden Carving

    • Their skillfully crafted & designed wooden articles have a special place in Arunachal handicrafts.

    • Some of finest woodcarvers in India come from Wancho, Konyak & Phom tribes in Nagaland.

    • Icons that best define Naga’s skill in woodwork are carved mithun heads, hornbills, human figures, elephants, tigers & log-drums or xylophones that are laboriously hollowed out of trunks of big trees.

    • Naga arts & tribes because of their affinity towards weapons such as

Spears & daos.

  • Rengma tribe is considered to be best Naga black smith & you can get beautifully decorated spears as take a ways.

  • A verity of traditional utensils & fancy articles are manufactured in Assam.

  • Atsu Sekhose from Nagaland was probably only well-known designer from there.

  • Jenjum Gadi from Arunachal Pradesh, Khumanthem from Manipur, Dev Verman from Tripura & Karma Sonam from Sikkim.

  • Their USP: use locally sourced, locally made textiles & promote such identities.

  • One of best known names from North East to shake up fashion world is Atsu Sekhose who celebrated completion of decade in fashion industry w/his Fall Winter cocktail collection 2017.

  • Stacey Pongener Syiem has created a niche for herself in UK w/her urban tribal fashion brand Little Hill People.

Celebrating India’s Creations

  • India was partner country at Ambiente 2019 & India Pavilion was profusion of installations that took India’s textile & technique & placed them on global map.

  • Ambiente 2019 aims at creating conversations around & uplifting creative industry.

  • Ministry of Textiles & GoI unveiled India Design Concepts on lines of ‘The Future is Handmade’. Project aims at bringing to forefront multitude of age-old Indian textiles developed by expert artisans & designers to fit need of hour.

  • In addition to exposing world to India’s offerings of wondrous weaves & strenuous techniques, this opportunity put India’s artisans & designers on global map of design & décor.

  • ‘India Pavilion’ mimics conformation of step well.

  • Collection ‘Neel’, Modular Sofa set was perfect alchemy of traditional technique of Odisha Ikat & modern form, leap towards contemporizing age old craft while preserving roots of its origin.

  • Crafted ‘Vana’ use Indian wood w/unique grain & colour palette that ranges from pale to darker streaks.

  • Ability to engage complex inlay in wood veneer as furniture & intricately aligned complex shapes was key of curation.

  • ‘Rachana’ explored organic, ‘Amaaya’ paid homage to dynamism & traverses of metal & translated them to functional & bespoke design.

  • 5th collection looked at transforming real spaces into surreal dimensions. Bent on experimentation & inspired by skills learnt from working w/traditional Indian craftsmen, showcased was highest quality of hand blown glass possible in form of Peacock.

  • Pillars were made by blown glass & casted in Brass, inspired by architecture of Stepwells.

  • W/skilled artisans, contemporary ideation & craft advocates on board, along w/support of Ministry of Textiles, project came together to be one of greatest narratives of India’s art, design & culture.

  • Amalgamation of sustainable textiles & techniques w/physical spaces drove not only awareness of crafts & their versatile nature, but opened up opportunities for craftspeople of India.

Telling A Story In Fabric

  • Article on textile traditions of region can be found on Google Arts & Culture site, which showcase collection from Indian Museum, Kolkata.

  • Textiles & dresses are probably dominantly identifiable cultural aspects which show resemblances & differences among ethnic groups that are produced & used by them.

  • Traditional dress of ethnic group plays major role in showcasing ethnic identity. Each ethnic group has its own designs & colour combinations. Diff. motifs & designs of textiles have relationship w/rituals & religious life of people of North-East India.

  • There are certain shawls & wrappers that only chief of tribe is allowed to wear. Garments act as markers of stature of person w/I ethnic group as well.

  • Reang tribe of Tripura or Apatanis of Arunachal, each has its own signature motifs & colour schemes.

  • Adi-Gallong tribe in Arunachal has python as its identification mark.

  • In Mizoram, 2 prominent tribes: Lushai & Lai. Both have wraparound skirt, which is called ‘puan’ in Lushai & ‘thihni’ in Lai.

  • ‘Puan’ in Mizo language can mean any piece of cloth & when it is tied on waist & worn as lower garment, it is called puan.

  • It is yard in length & from 44 inches to 54 inches in breadth. Decorative weaving done on surface of cloth is known as ‘zeh’.

  • ‘Headdress’ made of white coloured cotton cloth, used by Meitei ethnic group of Manipur. At front is exquisite floral motif & back is embellished w/jori ribbons.

  • Kakat-bandha (Towel Cloth) –

    • Belonging to Bodo ethnic group.

    • It is narrow piece of yellow-coloured cloth w/embroidered work & cotton fringes on either side.

    • Used as waist band.

  • Jang Jenatuan (Black cotton open drape cloth) –

    • Belonging to Kuki ethnic group

    • Off-white skirt, embellished w/red, black & white lines

    • Used by men of Kabui Naga tribe

  • Thotsepfhe (white shawl) –

    • Embroidered designs at one end.

    • Embroidered wavy designs - present on body of shawl & kept w/I squarish box.

    • 4 pieces of cloth are stitched together to get required length of shawl

    • Used by Angami Naga ethnic group

  • Galuk –

    • Black coloured sleeveless jacket, made of cotton.

    • Decorated w/few patches of embroidery work w/red, white & golden thread.

    • Used by Galong ethnic group

  • Extensive details of garments of Apatani & Mishmi tribe of Arunachal Pradesh in Indian Textiles: Past and Present by GK Ghosh & Shukla Ghosh.

  • Apatani wear Eri Silk of Assam, wool of Tibet. Apatani men wear loin cloth w/cane plaited loop around their body, & cloak of white quilted cotton w/borders of light blue & red bands. Apatani women wear short skirt of coarse greyish cloth reaching just below knee, short-sleeved jacket of same material cloak reaching down to knees.

  • Back Strap Loom – Loom’s design shows development of thought in human brain.

  • Handloom Weaving: The Traditional Crafts of Manipur, mentions that khwang iyong or loin loom was traditionally used by Meiteis.

  • Traditional Weaving Tools – Bamboo & Wooden spools & Tareng, wooden charkha

  • Muga Silk was used to weave rani phee or women’s chaddar & cotton in wangkheiphee.

  • Animal or insect motifs like lamthang khut-lator snake design & sangai or deer design were used.

  • Journey of weaves across Northeast revealed story about indigenous communities making wonders out of what was locally available.

  • In past, in absence of sequins, beetle skin & cowrie shells were used as embellishments.

  • Mishing Weave – one of recurring patterns in Mishing weave is diamond, which symbolise changghar – structure significant to tribe’s wellbeing.

Various Crafts in India

Zari:

  • 4 types of zari in India –

    • Real Zari

    • Semi Zari

    • Imitation Zari

    • Plastic Zari

  • Real Zari is made of silver & electroplated w/gold. Semi Real Zari has composition of copper coated w/silver & gold electroplating.

  • Surat is home of zari industry in India.

  • Other clusters producing zari are Bareilly, Varanasi, Agra, Hyderabad, Lucknow, Vadodara, Lathur, Lathur, Jaipur, Barmer, etc.

Leather Footwear and other Leather Articles:

  • Major production centres in India – Chennai, Ranipet (Tamil Nadu), Mumbai, Agra, Lucknow & Kanpur (UP), Jalandhar (Punjab), Delhi, Karnal & Faridabad (Haryana), Kolkata, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Himachal Pradesh, Odisha, Calicut (Kerala)

  • Leather products – jackets, lampshades, pouches, bags, belts, wallets & stuffed toys – exported from India

Carpet:

  • Various kinds of carpets include hand-knotted woolen carpets, tufted woolen carpets, handmade woolen durries & pure silk carpets.

  • Centres of carpet production – Bhadohi, Varanasi, Mirzapur, Agra, Jaipur, Bikaner, Kashmir, Panipat, Gwalior, West Bengal, U’Khand, Karnataka & Elluru in AP.

Rugs & Durries:

  • Various kinds of rugs in India – Namda (felted rugs), Gabba (embroidered rugs), wooden pile rugs, cotton rugs, etc.

  • Centres of Rug Production – Agra, Bhadoi, Mirzapur (UP), Jaipur, Panipat (Haryana), Kashmir

  • Centres of Durrie Production – Panipat, Bhavani (Tamil Nadu), Navalgund (Karnataka), Warangal (AP), Jaisalmer, Barmer (Rajasthan)

Handloom:

  • Handloom contributes 14.6 % to total cloth production in country. There are 470 handloom clusters, of which 230 clusters have more than 1000 weaving looms.

  • Major clusters – Bahraich, Bhuj, Karimnagar, Patan, Varanasi, Nawan, Shaher, Boudh

Textile Hand Embroidery

  • Popular embroidery clusters – chikankari, zardozi of Lucknow, katha of Bengal, pulkari of Punjab, kutchi embroidery of Gujarat, kashidakari of Kashmir

  • Zardozi is traditionally prevalent in Lucknow & 6 surrounding dist. of Barabanki, Unnao, Sitapur, Rae Bareli, Hardoi & Amethi

Textile Hand Printing

  • Various types of hand printing – block printing, batik, kalamkari (hand printing by pen) & bandhani (tie & die)

  • Imp. centres – Hyderabad, Machalipattnam, Varanasi, Farrukabad, Bagh, Behrongarh, Indore, Mandsar, Burhanpur, Ahmedabad, Rajkot, Kutch, Bagru, Chittroli, Sanganer, Jaipur, Jodhpur

Cane & Bamboo

  • Cane is used for furniture making, whereas bamboo is used for making jewellery & decorative utility items like lamp-stand, umbrella handles, partitions, screens, flower pots etc.

  • Prominent places for cane & bamboo: Assam (Lakhimpur, Bongaigaon, Guwahati) & Tripura (Agartala, Nelaghar)

Image of Prominent Places For Cane & Bamboo

Image of Prominent Places For Cane & Bamboo

Image of Prominent Places For Cane & Bamboo

  • Other major centres: Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh, West Bengal, Kerala, Odisha

Filigree & Silverware

  • Filigree work is performed on silver & involves significant precision & technically.

  • 2 major clusters of silver filigree – Karimnagar in Andhra & Cuttack in Odisha

Image of Filigree & Silverware

Image of Filigree & Silverware

Image of Filigree & Silverware

  • Key raw materials – silver wire, tracing sheet, copper, charcoal, dilute sulphuric acid.

Metal Ware

  • Diff. categories of handicrafts – brass metal ware of Moradabad, metal bidri work & bell metal in Madhya Pradesh, Odisha.

  • Major clusters – Moradabad, Murshidabad, Madurai, Salem, Cuttack & Haryana.

  • Bidriware is metal handicraft – originated in Bidar, Karnataka. It originates from township of Bidar. It is form of encrusted metal ware, where one metal is inlaid on to another.

  • Bidri products include diverse range of objects including hukka bases, bowls, boxes, candle stands, trays, jewellery & buttons.

  • It travelled from Iran to Ajmer in Rajasthan in 13th century AD, & from there to Bijapur & flourished during reign of Deccan Sultanate.

  • Basic metal used for Bidri is alloy of zinc & copper.

Jewellery

Major centres of handmade jewellery – Delhi, Moradabad, Sambhal, Jaipur, Kohima (Tribal), Nellore, Mysore, Nalgonda, Nizamabad

Pottery and Clay Objects

  • Most popular forms of pottery – blue pottery, black & red pottery, roulette ware & dull red & grey ware

  • Asharikandi in Assam is largest cluster in India. Terracotta & Pottery craft is found here.

Image of Pottery and Clay Objects

Image of Pottery and Clay Objects

Image of Pottery and Clay Objects

  • Other clusters – Bhadrawati, Bulandshahar, Nizamabad, Pune, Chandrapur

  • Raw material for this craft – ordinary clay, derived from beds of water bodies

Terracotta

In this, crafts persons use local clay available in river beds to make items like lamps, candle stands, figures of deities & animals

Folk Painting

  • Indian Folk Paintings are pictorial expressions of village painters which are marked by subjects chosen from epics like Ramayana & Mahabharata, Indian Puranas.

  • Gond tribe of MP is engaged in floor & wall painting. Warli is vivid expression of daily & social events of Warli in Maharashtra.

  • Rajasthan is famous for Phad painting done on cloth.

  • Other types of paintings – Pithora painting in Gujarat & MP, Madhubani painting of Bihar, Chitrakar painting of West-Bengal, Patachitras in Odisha, Kalamkari in Srikalahasti, AP.

Coir Twisting

  • Coir is natural, eco-friendly, water proof & exceptionally tensile fibre extracted from nuts of coconut palms.

  • Craft primarily produced – Odisha (Sakhigopal, Puri, Pipli, Bhubaneswar, Batamangala & Kendrapara) & Kerala (Ernakulam)

Theatre, Costumes & Puppets

  • This craft involves making objects related to festivals & for use in performing arts.

  • 4 types of puppets – glove, rod, shadow & string

  • Several states – Odisha (Kundhei nach, Kathi Kandhe, Ravanachhaya), Karnataka (Gombeyatta, Togalu Gombeatta), Andhra Pradesh (Tholu Bommalata), Tamil Nadu (Thol Bommalattam, Tolpavakoothu, Pava-kathakali)

  • Grass, Leaf, Reed & Fibre

  • Traditionally, natural fibres are used in cultures for making utilitarian products.

  • Fibres can be extracted from bark (banana, jute, hemp, ramie), stem (banana, palm, bamboo), leaf (palm, screw pine, sisal, agave), husk (coir), seeds (cotton), grass (sikki, madhurkati, benakati, munj)

  • Fibre is found in many states including Maharashtra (sisal), Kerala (palm leaf, korai grass), Tamil Nadu (palm leaf, korai grass), Assam (shitalpatti), Meghalaya (shitalpatti), Bihar (Sikki & Munj grass)

  • Major centers – Almora & Dehradun in U’Khand, Goa, Ernakulam in Kerala, Kullu in Himachal Pradesh, Midnapur in West BengalPerfecting Craftsmanship through Skilling

    • India - world’s 2nd largest producer of textiles & garments & ranks in top 3 in export of handicrafts.

    • Skilling opportunities in various job roles like – auto loom weaver, power loom operator, Shuttleless Loom Weaver – Projectile, Beam Carrier & Loader, Fitter – auto loom weaving machine have given impetus to industry.

    • Successful efforts were made in developing 72 Qualification Packs (QPs). Out of these 71 are cleared by National Skill Qualification Committee (NSQC). These QPs constitute requirements of about 80 % of workforce engaged in textile industries.

    • TSSC is developing standards for other workforce in critical segments like wool, silk, jute, technical textiles & quality control.

    • Sector contributes abt 27 % of country’s foreign earnings due to export, 2 % to GDP & 13 % to nation’s export.

    • Handicraft exports from India increased by 1.65 % year-on-year b/w April-November, 2018 to US $2.42 billion.

    • Textile & Handicrafts industry have relied on traditional production processes that are labour intensive, involving many long, complex steps.

    • W/advent of Industry 4.0 – where digitization, WWW, Mass Customization & pace are shaping processes, these industries are positioned to spur & speed up.

    • 87 % of handloom households hail from rural India & only 13 % are from urban areas.

    • Handloom Industry plays imp. role in women empowerment due to employment of lot of women in this sector. Handloom fabric production contributes 1/5th of India’s total fabric production & US $35.34 million to total fabric export.

    • Elevating employment opportunities in textile & handicraft sectors & its allied industries, will make these sectors more prosperous. Sectors are imp. source to express art & skill in crafts & promote culture by making crafts & textile items available locally.

    Khadi’s Journey: From Gandhi’s Khaddar to Fashion Symbol

    • Khadi play vital role in economic growth of nation.

    • MoU was signed w/National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT) for better design development & training at diff. Khadi institutions.

    • Interaction was organised w/CEOs of Retail Chains & Designers at WTC Mumbai. Objective was to give retail presence to Khadi in major malls & retail stores.

    • Innovation in form of ‘Khadi Mitra’ is on cards, where housewives could sell Khadi w/very nominal capital investment initially.

    • To popularize khadi brand, huge charkhas are set up at IGI Airport & Connaught place. Charkha Museum & Khadi Haat are opened at Connaught Place in New Delhi.

    • Charkha that supplemented agriculture of villagers w/dignity. Any wheel is symbolic of changing times, revolving fortunes of people & reminiscent of justice that does not discriminate b/w people or epochs of history.

    • Wheel is seen as unifier & icon of our past, present & future.

    Growth and Development: Woven in Threads of Northeast

    • By value tactile industry accounts for 7 per cent of India’s industrial, 2 per cent of GDP & 15 per cent of country’s export earnings.

    • India exported $39.2 billion worth of textiles in 2017 - 18 fiscal year.

    • In terms of global ranking, India is ranked 2nd in textile export.

    • European Union is largest market for Indian textile & apparel products followed by USA.

    • In 2016 - 17, share of exports to EU was 25 per cent whereas that to use USA was 21 per cent.

    • Some of important pointers of Indian textile industry are as follows:

      • India covers 61 percent of international textile market

      • India is largest producer of jute in world

      • India is known to be third largest manufacturer of cotton across globe

      • India holds around 25 percent share in cotton yarn industry acreoss globe

      • India contributes to around 12 percent of world’s production of cotton yarn & textiles

    • India is second largest producer of silk in world, producing around 18 per cent of world’s total silk.

    • In short, India is second largest producer of fibre in world.

    • There are 23.77 lakh handlooms in country of which 16.47 lakh handlooms (69.28 per cent) are in North east region as per handloom census of 2009 - 10.

    • In fact, handicraft & textiles is among key ‘watch sectors’ of North east & development & modernization of textiles sector in North Eastern states is being given highest priority.

    • To understand craft traditions of north eastern India, one must know terrain, its people & their way of life.

    • In this area, as is in most other parts of India, crafts are not practiced as a hobby, nor are they a commercial Venture; they are very much an integral part of life & customs of people.

    • There are multiple traditional crafts prevalent in region which are governed by local conditions.

    • A common factor that binds all states is

    • Weaving –

      Major Clusters – Nokteys of Tirap in Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Assam & Khasis of Meghalaya

    • Meghalaya is known for establishing tradition of high quality weaving.

    • Arunachal Pradesh weaves are famous for their beautiful colour combinations.

    • Exceptional are Sherdukpen shawls, Apatani jackets & scarves, Adi skirts, jackets & bags, Mishmi shawls, blouses & jackets & Wancho bags & loin cloths.

    • Naga shawls, also known as Angami naga, are famous for their bright colours & bold embroidery of animal motifs.

    • Striking feature of Tripura handlooms is vertical & horizontal stripes w/scattered embroidery in different colours.

    • Monpas & Sherdukpens of Kameng, Mishmis & Khamtis of Lohit or wives of Wancho chieftains of Tirap in Arunachala Pradesh, or any of Naga tribes, or even Assamese in plains, it is women who weave unlike rest of India, where men predominate weaving profession.

    • Silk

      • Assam is 3rd largest producer of silk in country & leading among north east states.

      • On other hand, Manipur produced almost 100 per cent of country’s Oak tussar silk & is highest producer of Mulberry silk among north east states.

      • Whereas, Tripura focuses on production of only Mulberry silk w/end to end solutions.

      • Assam is home to various types of silk of which Muga is most coveted & exclusive.

    • Bamboo & Cane Craft

      Mizos (people from Mizoram) take great pride in their cane & bamboo work

    • Carpets

      • Traditional pattern of weaving is done by ‘Bhutia’ community which requires a frame & an exclusive manner of weaving.

      • Arunachal too is well known for carpets.

      • Arunachal Pradesh is divided into 3 major groups depending on their

    Culture & handicrafts; Buddhist tribes consist of Sherdukpens & Monpas & also to some extent Khowa.

    • Aka & mijis comprise another group, while Membas Khambas, Khamtis & Singphos comprise last group.

    • Wooden & Metal Products

      • Sikkim brims w/beautiful monasteries, heritage buildings & temples, architecture of which is adorned w/symbols & icons carved in wood

      • Pemayangtse Monastery is affine illustration of carved wooden sculptures & wood carvings.

      • Wood carving is a significant hobby of Wancho of Tirap.

      • Their skillfully crafted & designed wooden articles have a special place in Arunachal handicrafts.

      • Some of finest woodcarvers in India come from Wancho, Konyak & Phom tribes in Nagaland.

      • Icons that best define Naga’s skill in woodwork are carved mithun heads, hornbills, human figures, elephants, tigers & log-drums or xylophones that are laboriously hollowed out of trunks of big trees.

      • Naga arts & tribes because of their affinity towards weapons such as

    Spears & daos.

    • Rengma tribe is considered to be best Naga black smith & you can get beautifully decorated spears as take a ways.

    • A verity of traditional utensils & fancy articles are manufactured in Assam.

    • Atsu Sekhose from Nagaland was probably only well-known designer from there.

    • Jenjum Gadi from Arunachal Pradesh, Khumanthem from Manipur, Dev Verman from Tripura & Karma Sonam from Sikkim.

    • Their USP: use locally sourced, locally made textiles & promote such identities.

    • One of best known names from North East to shake up fashion world is Atsu Sekhose who celebrated completion of decade in fashion industry w/his Fall Winter cocktail collection 2017.

    • Stacey Pongener Syiem has created a niche for herself in UK w/her urban tribal fashion brand Little Hill People.

    Celebrating India’s Creations

    • India was partner country at Ambiente 2019 & India Pavilion was profusion of installations that took India’s textile & technique & placed them on global map.

    • Ambiente 2019 aims at creating conversations around & uplifting creative industry.

    • Ministry of Textiles & GoI unveiled India Design Concepts on lines of ‘The Future is Handmade’. Project aims at bringing to forefront multitude of age-old Indian textiles developed by expert artisans & designers to fit need of hour.

    • In addition to exposing world to India’s offerings of wondrous weaves & strenuous techniques, this opportunity put India’s artisans & designers on global map of design & décor.

    • ‘India Pavilion’ mimics conformation of step well.

    • Collection ‘Neel’, Modular Sofa set was perfect alchemy of traditional technique of Odisha Ikat & modern form, leap towards contemporizing age old craft while preserving roots of its origin.

    • Crafted ‘Vana’ use Indian wood w/unique grain & colour palette that ranges from pale to darker streaks.

    • Ability to engage complex inlay in wood veneer as furniture & intricately aligned complex shapes was key of curation.

    • ‘Rachana’ explored organic, ‘Amaaya’ paid homage to dynamism & traverses of metal & translated them to functional & bespoke design.

    • 5th collection looked at transforming real spaces into surreal dimensions. Bent on experimentation & inspired by skills learnt from working w/traditional Indian craftsmen, showcased was highest quality of hand blown glass possible in form of Peacock.

    • Pillars were made by blown glass & casted in Brass, inspired by architecture of Stepwells.

    • W/skilled artisans, contemporary ideation & craft advocates on board, along w/support of Ministry of Textiles, project came together to be one of greatest narratives of India’s art, design & culture.

    • Amalgamation of sustainable textiles & techniques w/physical spaces drove not only awareness of crafts & their versatile nature, but opened up opportunities for craftspeople of India.

    Telling A Story In Fabric

    • Article on textile traditions of region can be found on Google Arts & Culture site, which showcase collection from Indian Museum, Kolkata.

    • Textiles & dresses are probably dominantly identifiable cultural aspects which show resemblances & differences among ethnic groups that are produced & used by them.

    • Traditional dress of ethnic group plays major role in showcasing ethnic identity. Each ethnic group has its own designs & colour combinations. Diff. motifs & designs of textiles have relationship w/rituals & religious life of people of North-East India.

    • There are certain shawls & wrappers that only chief of tribe is allowed to wear. Garments act as markers of stature of person w/I ethnic group as well.

    • Reang tribe of Tripura or Apatanis of Arunachal, each has its own signature motifs & colour schemes.

    • Adi-Gallong tribe in Arunachal has python as its identification mark.

    • In Mizoram, 2 prominent tribes: Lushai & Lai. Both have wraparound skirt, which is called ‘puan’ in Lushai & ‘thihni’ in Lai.

    • ‘Puan’ in Mizo language can mean any piece of cloth & when it is tied on waist & worn as lower garment, it is called puan.

    • It is yard in length & from 44 inches to 54 inches in breadth. Decorative weaving done on surface of cloth is known as ‘zeh’.

    • ‘Headdress’ made of white coloured cotton cloth, used by Meitei ethnic group of Manipur. At front is exquisite floral motif & back is embellished w/jori ribbons.

    • Kakat-bandha (Towel Cloth) –

      • Belonging to Bodo ethnic group.

      • It is narrow piece of yellow-coloured cloth w/embroidered work & cotton fringes on either side.

      • Used as waist band.

    • Jang Jenatuan (Black cotton open drape cloth) –

      • Belonging to Kuki ethnic group

      • Off-white skirt, embellished w/red, black & white lines

      • Used by men of Kabui Naga tribe

    • Thotsepfhe (white shawl) –

      • Embroidered designs at one end.

      • Embroidered wavy designs - present on body of shawl & kept w/I squarish box.

      • 4 pieces of cloth are stitched together to get required length of shawl

      • Used by Angami Naga ethnic group

    • Galuk –

      • Black coloured sleeveless jacket, made of cotton.

      • Decorated w/few patches of embroidery work w/red, white & golden thread.

      • Used by Galong ethnic group

    • Extensive details of garments of Apatani & Mishmi tribe of Arunachal Pradesh in Indian Textiles: Past and Present by GK Ghosh & Shukla Ghosh.

    • Apatani wear Eri Silk of Assam, wool of Tibet. Apatani men wear loin cloth w/cane plaited loop around their body, & cloak of white quilted cotton w/borders of light blue & red bands. Apatani women wear short skirt of coarse greyish cloth reaching just below knee, short-sleeved jacket of same material cloak reaching down to knees.

    • Back Strap Loom – Loom’s design shows development of thought in human brain.

    • Handloom Weaving: The Traditional Crafts of Manipur, mentions that khwang iyong or loin loom was traditionally used by Meiteis.

    • Traditional Weaving Tools – Bamboo & Wooden spools & Tareng, wooden charkha

    • Muga Silk was used to weave rani phee or women’s chaddar & cotton in wangkheiphee.

    • Animal or insect motifs like lamthang khut-lator snake design & sangai or deer design were used.

    • Journey of weaves across Northeast revealed story about indigenous communities making wonders out of what was locally available.

    • In past, in absence of sequins, beetle skin & cowrie shells were used as embellishments.

    • Mishing Weave – one of recurring patterns in Mishing weave is diamond, which symbolise changghar – structure significant to tribe’s wellbeing.

    Various Crafts in India

    Zari:

    • 4 types of zari in India –

      • Real Zari

      • Semi Zari

      • Imitation Zari

      • Plastic Zari

    • Real Zari is made of silver & electroplated w/gold. Semi Real Zari has composition of copper coated w/silver & gold electroplating.

    • Surat is home of zari industry in India.

    • Other clusters producing zari are Bareilly, Varanasi, Agra, Hyderabad, Lucknow, Vadodara, Lathur, Lathur, Jaipur, Barmer, etc.

    Leather Footwear and other Leather Articles:

    • Major production centres in India – Chennai, Ranipet (Tamil Nadu), Mumbai, Agra, Lucknow & Kanpur (UP), Jalandhar (Punjab), Delhi, Karnal & Faridabad (Haryana), Kolkata, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Himachal Pradesh, Odisha, Calicut (Kerala)

    • Leather products – jackets, lampshades, pouches, bags, belts, wallets & stuffed toys – exported from India

    Carpet:

    • Various kinds of carpets include hand-knotted woolen carpets, tufted woolen carpets, handmade woolen durries & pure silk carpets.

    • Centres of carpet production – Bhadohi, Varanasi, Mirzapur, Agra, Jaipur, Bikaner, Kashmir, Panipat, Gwalior, West Bengal, U’Khand, Karnataka & Elluru in AP.

    Rugs & Durries:

    • Various kinds of rugs in India – Namda (felted rugs), Gabba (embroidered rugs), wooden pile rugs, cotton rugs, etc.

    • Centres of Rug Production – Agra, Bhadoi, Mirzapur (UP), Jaipur, Panipat (Haryana), Kashmir

    • Centres of Durrie Production – Panipat, Bhavani (Tamil Nadu), Navalgund (Karnataka), Warangal (AP), Jaisalmer, Barmer (Rajasthan)

    Handloom:

    • Handloom contributes 14.6 % to total cloth production in country. There are 470 handloom clusters, of which 230 clusters have more than 1000 weaving looms.

    • Major clusters – Bahraich, Bhuj, Karimnagar, Patan, Varanasi, Nawan, Shaher, Boudh

    Textile Hand Embroidery

    • Popular embroidery clusters – chikankari, zardozi of Lucknow, katha of Bengal, pulkari of Punjab, kutchi embroidery of Gujarat, kashidakari of Kashmir

    • Zardozi is traditionally prevalent in Lucknow & 6 surrounding dist. of Barabanki, Unnao, Sitapur, Rae Bareli, Hardoi & Amethi

    Textile Hand Printing

    • Various types of hand printing – block printing, batik, kalamkari (hand printing by pen) & bandhani (tie & die)

    • Imp. centres – Hyderabad, Machalipattnam, Varanasi, Farrukabad, Bagh, Behrongarh, Indore, Mandsar, Burhanpur, Ahmedabad, Rajkot, Kutch, Bagru, Chittroli, Sanganer, Jaipur, Jodhpur

    Cane & Bamboo

    • Cane is used for furniture making, whereas bamboo is used for making jewellery & decorative utility items like lamp-stand, umbrella handles, partitions, screens, flower pots etc.

    • Prominent places for cane & bamboo: Assam (Lakhimpur, Bongaigaon, Guwahati) & Tripura (Agartala, Nelaghar)

    • Other major centres: Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh, West Bengal, Kerala, Odisha

    Filigree & Silverware

    • Filigree work is performed on silver & involves significant precision & technically.

    • 2 major clusters of silver filigree – Karimnagar in Andhra & Cuttack in Odisha

    • Key raw materials – silver wire, tracing sheet, copper, charcoal, dilute sulphuric acid.

    Metal Ware

    • Diff. categories of handicrafts – brass metal ware of Moradabad, metal bidri work & bell metal in Madhya Pradesh, Odisha.

    • Major clusters – Moradabad, Murshidabad, Madurai, Salem, Cuttack & Haryana.

    • Bidriware is metal handicraft – originated in Bidar, Karnataka. It originates from township of Bidar. It is form of encrusted metal ware, where one metal is inlaid on to another.

    • Bidri products include diverse range of objects including hukka bases, bowls, boxes, candle stands, trays, jewellery & buttons.

    • It travelled from Iran to Ajmer in Rajasthan in 13th century AD, & from there to Bijapur & flourished during reign of Deccan Sultanate.

    • Basic metal used for Bidri is alloy of zinc & copper.

    Jewellery

    Major centres of handmade jewellery – Delhi, Moradabad, Sambhal, Jaipur, Kohima (Tribal), Nellore, Mysore, Nalgonda, Nizamabad

    Pottery and Clay Objects

    • Most popular forms of pottery – blue pottery, black & red pottery, roulette ware & dull red & grey ware

    • Asharikandi in Assam is largest cluster in India. Terracotta & Pottery craft is found here.

    • Other clusters – Bhadrawati, Bulandshahar, Nizamabad, Pune, Chandrapur

    • Raw material for this craft – ordinary clay, derived from beds of water bodies

    Terracotta

    In this, crafts persons use local clay available in river beds to make items like lamps, candle stands, figures of deities & animals

    Folk Painting

    • Indian Folk Paintings are pictorial expressions of village painters which are marked by subjects chosen from epics like Ramayana & Mahabharata, Indian Puranas.

    • Gond tribe of MP is engaged in floor & wall painting. Warli is vivid expression of daily & social events of Warli in Maharashtra.

    • Rajasthan is famous for Phad painting done on cloth.

    • Other types of paintings – Pithora painting in Gujarat & MP, Madhubani painting of Bihar, Chitrakar painting of West-Bengal, Patachitras in Odisha, Kalamkari in Srikalahasti, AP.

    Coir Twisting

    • Coir is natural, eco-friendly, water proof & exceptionally tensile fibre extracted from nuts of coconut palms.

    • Craft primarily produced – Odisha (Sakhigopal, Puri, Pipli, Bhubaneswar, Batamangala & Kendrapara) & Kerala (Ernakulam)

    Theatre, Costumes & Puppets

    • This craft involves making objects related to festivals & for use in performing arts.

    • 4 types of puppets – glove, rod, shadow & string

    • Several states – Odisha (Kundhei nach, Kathi Kandhe, Ravanachhaya), Karnataka (Gombeyatta, Togalu Gombeatta), Andhra Pradesh (Tholu Bommalata), Tamil Nadu (Thol Bommalattam, Tolpavakoothu, Pava-kathakali)

    • Grass, Leaf, Reed & Fibre

    • Traditionally, natural fibres are used in cultures for making utilitarian products.

    • Fibres can be extracted from bark (banana, jute, hemp, ramie), stem (banana, palm, bamboo), leaf (palm, screw pine, sisal, agave), husk (coir), seeds (cotton), grass (sikki, madhurkati, benakati, munj)

    • Fibre is found in many states including Maharashtra (sisal), Kerala (palm leaf, korai grass), Tamil Nadu (palm leaf, korai grass), Assam (shitalpatti), Meghalaya (shitalpatti), Bihar (Sikki & Munj grass)

    • Major centers – Almora & Dehradun in U’Khand, Goa, Ernakulam in Kerala, Kullu in Himachal Pradesh, Midnapur in West Bengal

- Published/Last Modified on: May 15, 2019

Yojana

Monthy-updated, fully-solved, large current affairs-2019 question bank(more than 2000 problems): Quickly cover most-important current-affairs questions with pointwise explanations especially designed for IAS, NTA-NET, Bank-PO and other competetive exams.