Yojana December 2019 Urbanisation Developing Natural Forest Cover (Download PDF)

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Developing Natural Forest Cover: A Case Study from Yadadri, Telangana: W/enthusiasm generated across all sections of society to plant & protect saplings planted under ‘Telanganaku Haritha haram, ’ a flagship programme of state to create an entire forest instead of mere plantation. Principles of professor Akira, Miyawaki, a well Japanese botanist, plant ecologist & expert in restoration of natural vegetation on degraded land. He invented Miyawaki restoration technique to protect lowland areas against natural calamities like tsunami. Basic principle of Miyawaki is to initiate high density plantation in small piece of land w/native tree species that can protect low-laying areas from natural disaster. A method of developing a natural forest in degraded forest areas is developed in a cost effective manner & known as Yadadri Natural Forest (YNF) Establishment Model.

Miyawaki Principles of Natural Forest:

  • No defined spacing b/w plants;
  • Soil enrichment must be done before taking up plantation;
  • High density planting of herbs, shrubs & tree species up to 10000 plants per hectare;
  • Further supplementation of site by seed dibbling of native species;
  • Watering should be done at least up to next rainy season after planting;
  • Mulching should be done after planting to suppress weed & prevent evaporation;
  • Analysis of soil properties done in advance so as to choose best soil enrichment practices
  • Expect weeds no other naturally grown species shall be removed from plots.
  • Establishment cost of YNF model is arrived as Rs. 2 lakh/acre or Rs. 5 lakh/hectare.


  • Success of model depends on various sequences of events. Like site selection site development soil nutrient enrichment species selection pits dimension planting pattern usage of organic bio-fertilisers & post-planting management including irrigation schedule.

Site demarcation & clearance

Soil testing & site enrichment

Other Methods for Soil Enrichment 1st method: Community lands

2nd method: In reserved forest areas/protected areas

3rd method: Development of forest in urban areas

Selection of native species

Irrigation schedule

  • Watering w/tankers & pipe sprinklers is to be done instead of flood irrigation.

Post-planting management

  • It can be w/a fencing or watch & ward Trench can be avoided as t draws all nutrients by seepage.
Yadadri Natural Forest Establoishment (YNF) Model

Yadadri Natural Forest Establoishment (YNF) Model

Yadadri Natural Forest Establoishment (YNF) Model

Addressing Stubble Burning W/Cooperative Model

  • Rice-growing States including Punjab, Haryana, Uttar-Pradesh & Delhi add to problem of stubble burning.
  • Only reason to burn this asset that can yield income & fertility to soil is small gap of time b/w harvesting of paddy & sowing of wheat other main crop also farmers have limited access to dispose straw. Clean land & prepare seed bed for wheat well in time
  • Punjab had been contributing about 60 % of share in food stocks of paddy even w/only 1.5 % of area. Apart from burning of paddy straw, State has other problems like overuse of chemicals, Depletion in water table, etc.
  • There are only two cr. Wheat & Paddy, that have assured marketing thru. State procurement.
  • Issue of straw burning has to be settled thru. Other measures like manufacturing of paper & cardboard, production of mushroom where paddy straw can be used as raw material,
  • Cooperative model already experienced in dairy is most viable & prudent option in addressing this problem. There is a need of at least two cardboard & paper manufacturing units in every block. A cooperative society in area w/membership of local farmers & farm labourers can be formed & such units must be affiliated to apex body of State federation of cooperative for rice straw management.
  • Small-scale farmers would be satisfied w/less but assured income than to drift towards commercial crops irrespective of their profit that have any risk of fluctuating price & yield.

Consumer Protection Act, 2019: A New Milestone in Empowering Consumers

  • National Consumer Day is observed on 24 December every year. This day highlights importance of consumer movement & need to make consumers more aware of their rights & responsibilities. Article elucidates on new Consumer Protection Act 2019 which deals specifically w/new-age marketplace issues thus ensuring effective resolution of disputes.
  • Consumer Protection Act (CPA) 1986 being foremost legislature for protecting rights of consumers had become archaic & does not cover rapid changes in consumer marketplace, especially those dealing w/online shopping, teleshopping, product recall, unsafe contracts, & misleading advertisements Therefore, it was felt to replace it w/Consumer Protection Act, 2019.

Justice delayed is justice denied

  • Consumer Protection Act, 2019 (No. 35 of 2019) was passed by Parliament & received asset of President on 9 August, 2019 & Provides for protection of consumers & fast-track alternatives so that justice reaches to aggrieved consumers immediately. New Act repeals & replaces older CPA, 1986 & provides mechanisms for making consumer complaint system more robust. It envisages to remove anomalies & problems faced by consumers. Innovative methods such as mediation, establishment of central Consumer Protection Authority, class action suits etc. would be part Consumer Protection Act, 2019.

Shortcomings in CPA, 1986

  • CPA, 1986 has become outdated & does not consider rapid changes in consumer marketplaces.
  • Consumer commissions have been overburdened w/pending cases & buyer-Seller contact is tilted in favour of seller.
  • It aims at protection of consumers & fast-track alternatives so that justice reaches to aggrieved consumers immediately.
  • Consumer commissions are functioning w/staff deputed from other departments who do not have any experience in judicial practices.
  • There is lack of proper coordination among President & members of consumer commissions.
  • President of National Commission/state Commissions are not empowered to take up Suo Motu action in consideration of damages affecting a sizable number of population e. g. misleading advertisements.

Table 1: Total Number of Cases Disposed by Consumer Forums since Inception (Updated on 5.7. 2018)

Total Number of Cases Disposed by Consumer Forums

Total Number of Cases Disposed by Consumer Forums

Total Number of Cases Disposed by Consumer Forums

Consumer Protection Act, 2019

  • Objective of Act is to provide for protection of interests of consumers & to establish authorities for timely & effective administration & settlement of consumers’ disputes.
  • Definition of ‘Consumer’ would include both offline & online consumers. Expressions “buys any goods” & “hires or avails any services” would include offline or online transactions thru. Electronic means or by teleshopping or direct selling or multi-level marketing.
  • Establishment of Central Consumer Protection Authority (CCPA) to promote, protect & enforce right of intervene when necessary to prevent consumer detriment arising from unfair trade practices, & to initiate class action including enforcing recall, refund & of products. Thus CCPA can act on:

a) Complain of unfair trade practices,

b) Issue safety guidelines,

c) Order product recall or discontinuation of services,

d) Refer complaints to other regulators,

e) Has punitive powers such as imposing penalties,

f) Can file actions before consumer commissions,

g) Intervene in proceeding in matters of consumer rights or unfair trade practices.

  • Pecuniary jurisdiction of adjudicatory bodies increase District Commission to Rs. 1 cr, in case of State Commission b/w 1 cr. to 10 cr. & for National Commission, above Rs. 10 cr. Further simplification of procedure for filing of complaints & online filling of complaints has also been envisaged. In Consumer Protection Act, 2019, definition of ‘Consumer’ would include both offline & online consumers. Expression “buys any goods” & ” hires or avails any services” would include offline or online transactions thru. Electronics means or by teleshopping or direct selling or multi-level marketing.
  • Bill also lists punitive actions against those who are found to be manufacturing, storing, distributing, selling, or importing product that are spurious or contain adulterants.
  • Provision for “product liability” action for or on account of harm caused by or resulting from any product by way of fixing liability of a manufacturer to a claimant.
  • E-commerce guidelines would be mandatory under consumer protection law which would include 14-day deadline to effect refund request.
  • Under CPA, 1986 Central Government or State Governments are empowered to file a legal case against manufactures if they come across defective products, deficiency in service, unfair trade practice, or a restrictive trade practice.
  • Section 74 of New Consumer Protection Act mentions that State Government would establish a consumer mediation cell which would be attached to consumer courts & each of regional benches. Every consumer mediation cell would submit a quarterly report to District Commission, State Commission, or National Commission to which it would be attached, thus, every consumer mediation cell would maintain:

a) a list of empanelled mediators;

b) a list of cases handled by cell;

c) Record of proceeding; &

d) Any other information as may be specified by regulations.


- Published/Last Modified on: December 14, 2019


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