Yojana December 2019 Urbanisation Slums in India – Facts & Misconceptions (Download PDF)

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Slums in India – Facts & Misconceptions: “Blue polygon” settlements, so termed because clusters of such homes- four poles surmounted by a blue plastic sheet-appear as blue rectangles in satellite images. UN- Habitat employs five criteria to identify slums. Each related to a living condition that households in slums usually lack durable housing of a permanent nature; sufficient living space; easy access to safe water access to adequate sanitation; & security of tenure. For slums in bottom quartile most pressing public needs are drinking water (27 % of reporting residents), housing (27%), & toilets (25%), Neighbourhoods in top quartile have diff. concerns: waste mgmt. (30%) followed by employment training (4%).

Urbanisation & Informal Sector

Migration and Opportunities

  • Higher rural Literacy & improvements in educational level may raise rural-to-urban migration rate.
  • Higher per capita income, urbanisation & industrialisation can impact small manufacturing & trade simultaneously, as both activities are complementary to each other.
  • Across States, correlation between manufacturing & trade establishments in terms of worker per enterprise is significant (0.89) in rural areas while in urban areas trade & services establishment show a positive associate in terms of employment size (0.65).
  • Census towns are defined on basis of following criteria: (a) a minimum population of 5000; (b) at least 75 % of male workers are engaged in non-agricultural pursuits: & (c) a density of population of a least 4000 per square km.
  • In new activities come up in rear by small towns in a big way due to want of space in large cities, it is natural that migration of population will also be directed to these towns. On whole, these towns may be treated as satellite, towns growing in response to spur of economic activities.
  • Urbanisation spill-effect which ushers in a major change in land use patterns may pose threat not only in terms of food security but also sustained livelihood for those who lose their agricultural land.

Maps of newly formed Union Territories of Jammu Kashmir & Ladakh w/map of India

  • One recommendation of Parliament, President of India effectively dismantled Article 370 of Indian Constitution & gave assent to Jammu & Kashmir Reorganization Act, 2019. Under leadership of Prime Minister & supervision of union Home Minister, former State of Jammu has been reorganisation as new union Territory of Jammu & Kashmir & new Union Territory of Ladakh on 31 October, 2019.
  • New Union Territory of Ladakh consist of two districts of Kargil & Leh. Rest of former State of Jammu & Kashmir is in new Union Territory of Jammu & Kashmir.
  • In 1947, former State of Jammu & Kashmir had following 14 districts – kathua, Jammu, Udhampur, Reasi, Anantang, Baramulla, Poonch, Mirpur, Muzaffarabad, Leh & Ladakh, Gilgit, Gilgit Wazarat, Chilhas & Tribal Territory.
  • By 2019, State Government of Former Jammu & Kashmir had reorganised areas of these 14 districts in to 28 districts.
  • Out of these, Kargil district was carved out from area of Leh & Ladakh district. Leh district of new Union Territory of Ladakh has been defined in Jammu & Kashmir Reoganization (Removal of Difficulties) Second Order, 2019, issued by President of India, to include areas of district of Gilgit, Gilgit Wazarat, Chilhas & Tribal Territory of 1947, in addition to remaining areas of Leh & Ladakh districts of 1947, after carving out Kargil District.
Map of ut of Jammu and kashmir and ut Ladakh

Map of ut of Jammu and kashmir and ut Ladakh

Map of ut of Jammu and kashmir and ut Ladakh

Mobility-Responsive Urban Planning


  • Most migrants then are compelled to find solutions that are accessible to them & secure them outside formal system. Such solutions in domains of shelter, basic services, education, & healthcare not only create difficult living conditions for migrants, but more importantly most of these solutions lead to new challenges for city government.

Changing Scale & Forms of Mobility in India

  • Census defines a migrant as a person whose residence has shifted from place of residence enumerated in previous census or more who has shifted from her birthplace.
  • Mobility in India is significantly increasing & that forms of this mobility are varied & do not correspond to a permanent move Two forms which are particularly significant are a) commuting & b) circular migration. Both these forms of mobility have implications for way in which cities are shaped.
  • Temporary forms of migrants are people who contribute to city economy while they are there but their effort is directed at places which they come from i. e. source areas. This is where they contribute in terms of remittances, investments, asset building, and state revenues.
  • They contribute significantly to economic flows & outputs, extract less resources from city & bring in new ideas & ways of doing things.
  • While work & economic reasons may be largest drivers for such migration, education & health resource seeking may also be supplementary reasons for same.
  • A proactive approach to migration can lead to significant benefits for city economy & city vibrancy. A good example is that of Hyderabad Metro that uses four languages in its written massages.
  • Need for Vision for Supporting Migrants in Urban Policy: Short-term Housing
  • This is often seen as need for rental housing; but needs for temporary housing go way beyond rental housing that extends to several months. Short-term visitors to cities include all those groups that use city as a resource.
  • Other significant barrier to creating short-term housing solutions lies in current imagination of housing. Contemporary housing policies rest upon two broad principles-first is ownership based housing & other is use of land as a resource. First principle creates citizenship; it is a useful instrument to secure sustained commitment & investment in a place. Second helps to monetise land & contribute to state revenues in a dynamic manner.

Mission Indradhanush 2.0: Reiterating India’s Commitment to Vaccines for All

  • Immunisation programme is a critical component of its commitment towards Universal Health Coverage. It is integral to India’s efforts of reducing burden of vaccine preventable. Diseases & achieving universal care for children.
  • Government of India had launched ‘Expanded Program for Immunisation’ in 1978, which was later termed as ‘Universal Immunisation Program’ (UIP) in 1985 aiming to reduce mortality & morbidity among children from vaccine preventable diseases. India’s immunisation programme is largest in world, w/annual cohorts of around 26.5 million infants & 29 million pregnant women.
  • Vaccination coverage include rapid urbanisation, presence of s large migrating & isolated populations that are difficult to reach, & low demand from under informed & unaware populations.
  • India has achieved ground breaking success in eradicating/eliminating life-threatening vaccine preventable diseases by systematically implementing vaccination programmes. These include small pox, polio & more recently, maternal & neonatal tetanus.
  • Ministry of Health & Family Welfare has employed an effective approach such as involving community, seeking support from other Ministers & partner agencies, establishing an organised surveillance system, & employing mass campaign management strategies to reach every unreached child for vaccination.
  • Owing to low childhood vaccination coverage, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare launched Mission Indradhanush (MI) in 2014, to target under-served, vulnerable, resistant & inaccessible populations.
  • In October 2017, Prime Minister of India launched Intensified Mission Indradhanush (MI) —-an ambitious plan to accelerate progress. It aimed to achieve 90 % Full Immunisation Coverage (FIC) w/focus towards districts & urban areas w/persistently low levels.

Salient Features

  • Immunisation activity w/b in four rounds over 7 working day excluding RI days, Sundays & holidays;
  • Enhanced Immunisation session w/flexible timing, mobile session & mobilisation by other departments;
  • Enhanced focus on left outs, dropouts, & resistant families & hard to reach areas;
  • Focus on urban under-served population & tribal areas;
  • Inter-ministerial & inter-departmental coordination;
  • Enhance political, administrative & financial commitment, thru. advocacy;
  • Intensified Mission Indradhanush Immunisation drive, consisting of 4 rounds of Immunisation w/b conducted in selected districts & urban cities b/w December 2019-March 2020;
  • After completion of proposed 4 rounds States w/b expected to undertake measures to sustain gains from IMI, thru. activities like inclusion of IMI session in routine Immunisation plans. Sustainability of IMI w/b assessed thru. a survey.
  • Government is poised to launch Intensified Mission Indradhanush (IMI) 2.0 between December 2019-March 2020 to deliver a programme that is informed by lessons learnt from previous phases & seeks escalate efforts to achieve goal of attaining a 90 % national immunisation coverage across India. Programme will be delivered in 271 districts of 27 states & 652 of Uttar Pradesh & Bihar among hard-to-reach & tribal population. Several Ministries including Ministry of Women & Child Development, Panchayati Raj, Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs, Ministry of Youth Affairs, among others, will come together to make mission a resounding success & support Central Government in ensuring benefits of vaccines reach last mile.
  • NGOs, CSOs, NSS, NCC, Nehru Yuva Kendra, MSW will be involved as mobilisers, Development partners such as WHO, UNICEF, UNDP, IPE Global, Rotary International shall be supporting government efforts, & Technical Support Units (TSUs) will be established in select states as per program needs.
  • W/launch of Intensified Mission Indradhanush 2.0, India has opportunity to achieve further reductions in deaths among children under five years of age, & achieve Sustainable Development Goal of ending preventable child deaths by 2030.

Cities, Suburbs, Region & Hinterland

Metropolitan Region

  • It consists of city proper & surrounding suburbs & rural areas. City is already expanding in to its suburbs & will expand more in future because of compulsive demands of growth, requiring land for housing, industries, Demarcation of “metropolitan region” is first step in drawing up physical plan for a city. A major object of plan is control of land use, i. e. , allocation of land for various urban uses. Plan decides pattern of location of economic activity within metropolitan region & influences its functioning as an economic & social unit mainly though control of land use.

Role of a Peripheral Region in Urban Development

  • Peripheral region is area beyond metropolitan region. It is essentially rural or semi urban in character but is strongly affected by economic & social influences emanating from city.
  • Ribbon development along main roads & railway lines, haphazard growth of industry or location of noxious industries which will be difficult to shift later, destruction of large areas of productive land by brick kilns, lands being bought up for speculative purposes, area some of dangers of unplanned land use in peripheral region.

Concept of Hinterland

  • Hinterland is region for which city acts as a service centre rendering various commercial, administrative & other services. Bombay, for instance, is major port & commercial centre for Western India, including whole of Maharashtra & Gujarat & parts of Mysore, Madhya Pradesh & Rajasthan, Similarly, Delhi is commercial & service centre of North-West India.
  • Large increases in agricultural, industrial or mineral production in hinterland of a city like Bombay will increase demands on its port & on roads & railways leading to it. They will also mean larger demands on its banking, insurance & other services.
  • Small Towns are ‘Tributaries’ of Metropolitan Cities
  • Expansion of educational, cultural & other service facilities in hinterland would similarly reduce pressure on facilities available in city.

- Published/Last Modified on: December 14, 2019


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