Yojana February 2019: Infrastructure (Part-1) (Download PDF)


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Key Topics Included In This Article: Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana, Ayushman Bharat Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PMJAY), Challenges to Urban India, Smart Cities Mission Strategy, Jal Marg Vikas Project, Shyama Prasad Mukherjee Rurban Mission (SPMRM).

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Infrastructure: Yojana February 2019 (In English)

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Yojana February 2019: Infrastructure

  • National Heritage City Development & Augmentation Yojana
  • Atal Mission for Rejuvenation &Urban Transformation (AMRUT)
  • National River Linking Project in India
  • Salient Features of RCS UDAN
  • New Roadway Project
  • India’s Longest Bridge
  • Housing Finance
  • Integrating Skills Education
  • National Youth Parliament Festival 2019 Launched
  • Pradhan Mantri Swasthya Suraksha Yojana (PMSSY)
  • Prime Minister dedicated to nation four Laned Section of Solapur – Tuljapur – Osmanabad Of NH-211 (New NH-52).
  • Four laning of Solapur- Osmanabad highway will help improve connectivity of Solapur, w/important Marathwada region of Maharashtra.
  • Prime Minister also laid foundation stone for 30.000 houses under Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana.
  • These will primarily benefit poor homeless people like rag pickers, , rickshaw drives, textile workers, beedi workers, etc.
  • Total cost of project is rs. 1811.33 Cr. , out of which a total of rs. 750 Cr. Will be provided by Central & state Govt. as assistance.

Power For all – a Dream Coming True

  • India has become an exporter of electricity exporting electricity to Nepal & Bangladesh.
Image of 3 Components of Power Sectors

Image of 3 Components of Power Sectors

Image of 3 Components of Power Sectors

  • Power generated in Himachal Pradesh can be transmitted to Tamilnadu & power generated in Assam can be Transferred to Maharashtra or vice versa.
  • About 350 villages located in remote & difficult terrains in Arunachal Pradesh, J&K, Meghalaya & Manipur required head loading of Materials & trekking up to 10 days.
  • In 2762 villages, extending grid network was not feasible due to remote & inaccessible locations, solar based standalone systems were provided.
  • Enormous challenges of 7614 left Wing extremism affected villages in Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh & Odisha.
  • To achieve this feat, extensive infrastructure was created under DDUGJY.
  • Special focus was on feeder separation (rural households & agricultural) & strengthening of sub- transmission & distribution infrastructure including metering at all levels in rural areas.
  • Hundreds of thousand kilometers of new lines were laid & lakhs of distribution transformers were installed.
  • Next step was to light up every household.
  • Prime Minister launched ” Pradhan Mantri Sahaj Bijli Har Ghar Yojana”- Saubhagya in Sept. 2017 w/electrification.
  • As name of scheme itself suggests, it has inherent features of “Sahaj” i. e. simple/easy/effortless & “Har Ghar” i. e. inclusive universal household electrification.
  • This program has also set an example of effective cooperative federalism wherein Union Govt. state Govt. Distribution Companies &administration synergized their efforts for common goal.
  • More than 2.50 Cr. Households have already been electrified under Saubhagya!
  • International energy Agency called India’s electrification journey as one of greatest success stories of year -2018.
  • Govt. launched Integrated Power Development Scheme (IPDS) w/an aim to strengthen power infrastructure in urban areas.
  • Focus areas of IPDS are strengthening of sub-transmission & distribution network in urban areas
  • Metering of distribution transformers/feeders/consumers in urban areas
  • It enablement & automation of distribution sector

Renewable Energy

  • Overall installed capacity of Renewable Energy has been more than doubled in last four & a half years from 34,000 MW to 75,000 MW, solar capacity increased 8 times in last 4 years.
  • Today, India stands at 5th position in world in installed solar capacity at 4th position in installed wind capacity & 5th position in over all renewable energy (installed capacity).

Energy Efficiency

  • Household LED bulb distribution program UJALA & SLNP (streetlight national project) for replacing conversion streetlights w/smart & energy efficient LED street lights have saved billions of unit electricity per year.
  • Star labeling program, energy Conservation building code & energy efficiency measures thru Perform, Achieve & Trade (PAT) are also important initiatives in field of energy efficiency.
  • First cycle of PAT for industry achieved savings of more than 8.6 million tonnes of oil equivalent which is almost 1.23 percent of primary energy supply of India.
  • Second cycle is estimated to achieve higher savings.

Way Forward

  • A new Tariff Policy is being finalized.
  • It contains several consumer friendly provisions to ensure reliable & 24 × 7 power supply for all from 1st April, 2019.
  • Another futuristic area we are working on is Smart Electricity Meters.
  • Electrical vehicle (Evs are another major emerging area we are focusing on.
  • Govt. has launched National E- Mobility programme to promote electric vehicle in a big way.
  • Our country jumped to 24th rank in 2018 on world bank ‘s ease of getting Electricity in world as against 111st rank in 2014.

Multi –Pronged Approach to Urban Transformation

  • India’s urban population was over 31 per cent in 2011 census.
  • This is expected to rise to 40 per cent by 2030 & 50 per cent by 2050, i. e. it will cross 800 million.
  • As per 2011 census, urban India Contributed 63 percent to GDP; it is projected to grow over 75 per cent by 2030.

Challenges to Urban India

  • A three level strategy, as highlighted in diagram -1 has been envisaged;
  • At first level, poverty alleviation, affordable housing & sanitation were three biggest challenges
  • Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana- National Urban Livelihood Mission (DAY-NULM), Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana – Urban (PMAY-U) & Swachh Bharat Mission Urban (SBM-U) implemented in all urban local bodies (ULBs).
  • At the second level, basic infrastructure like water supply, sewerage/septate projects & green parks become focus.
  • These sectors required economies of scale & being implemented in 500 cities, w/1,00,000 & above population thru Atal Mission for Rejuvenation & Urban Transformation (AMRUT).
Image of Challenges to Urban India

Image of Challenges to Urban India

Image of Challenges to Urban India

  • This covers over 60 per cent of urban population.
  • Finally at third level, 100 cities are being developed under Smart Cities Mission (SCM) to a address issue of ease of living by evolving new paradigms of urban governance w/communities at core & increased use of digital technology to improve urban infrastructure, services & unitization of resources.

What do we mean by Smart Cities?

  • Smart Cities are woven around following principle:

Cities at the Core:

  • Citizens & communities are at centre of development;

More from Less:

  • Being conscious of resource constraints, they have to generate more impact/outcomes from use of less resources-energy, finance & other;

Cooperative & Competitive Federalism:

  • Cities are selected thru competition in two stage challenges at State & Central levels;

Integration, Innovation, Sustainability:

  • It is not merely about use of technology, but creation of integrated infrastructure & services.

Technology is Means & Not Goal:

  • Careful selection of technologies, relevant to context of particular cities, built around specific needs of their communities is important for cities tp work out solutions;

Inclusiveness is a Guiding Philosophy:

  • Cities are for people & hence they have to be built around principles of inclusiveness.
Image of City wide Smart Solution

Image of City Wide Smart Solution

Image of City wide Smart Solution

Smart Cities Mission Strategy

  • Mission tries to meet major goals highlighted earlier thru a two –fold strategy:

Area based Development

  • Which focuses on development of world class localities within cities to act as replicable models thru redevelopment, retrofitting or green development;

Pan City development

  • Wherein cities identify few key areas of intervention w/use of digital technologies to create impacts on basic infrastructure & services w/an intent to improve quality of life for their citizens.

Technology as a Means, & not End

  • Rajkot recorded an increase in online issuance of birth/death certificates; & thru surveillance, crime rate has gone down.
  • There is an improvement in traffic challans in Ahmedabad.
  • Pune has installed city which feed data to Smart city centre thereby enabling timely warning & response mechanism.
  • In Vishakhapatnam, CCTV & GPS enabled buses are being tracked online thru Smart city Centre.
  • Bhopal has seen a rise in its property tax collections & is able to track its transport service online.

Quality of Life & Economy: Impact

  • Primary focus of initiatives relating to local economic development is on commercial & retail activities/a strong focus on market redevelopment project & new construction of offices, homes & allied institutions such as conversion centres, etc. , as part of mixed use development

Innovation as Key Driver

  • SPIRIT-Smart Cities Promoting Innovation Research & Incubation in Technology.

Impact on Sustainability

  • Diu has become first city to completely switch over to solar power during day time.

Key Enablers

  • Smart Governance, improved urban finance, capacity building & technology driven innovation are key enablers in performance of smart cities.

Smart Governance

  • Smart Cities Mission aims to address barriers in data driven governance thru ‘Data Smart Cities’.
  • An evolving policy framework on data for smart cities, which aims to be a catalyst for entire eco system comprising of people, processes & technology.
  • Making ULBs financially self sufficient is very important for sustainable development.

Capacity Building & Knowledge Management:

  • Ministry has launches Cities Investment to Innovate, Integrate & Sustain (CITIS) challenge in collaboration w/French Development Bank (AFD).
  • AFD will provide investment support of EUR100 million to selected cities in key sectors of Sustainable Mobility, Public Open Spaces, Urban Governance & ICT & Social & Organization Innovation In Low income Settlements.
  • India Smart Cities Fellowship & Internship Program has been launched to engage brilliant youth w/Mission.
  • Provide young professionals w/an opportunity to experience various aspects of urban planning & governance.
  • Smart Net is an intuitive to support development of cities across India & to create a resource rich ecosystem of learning, sharing & disseminating for city managers & primary stakeholders in urban transformation of India.

National Urban Innovation Hub

  • A new entity titled ‘National Urban Innovation Hub’ (NUIH) - is being proposed at nation level to consolidate existing resources & to expand footprint of innovation development & capacity building for urban sector.
  • NUIH will anchor National Smart Cities Capacity Building Program to produce empowered functionaries & stronger institution.
  • NUIH will be powered by National Urban Innovation Stack (NUIS).
  • NUIS is envisaged to provided foundational components that are required across various urban programs

Way Forward

  • Innovative financing models like issuance of municipal bonds, developing PPP project & formulating land value capture finance (VCF) policies are required.
Image of The VCF Tools

Image of The VCF Tools

Image of The VCF Tools

National Waterways: Integrated Transport Network

  • On November 12,2018, Prime Minister dedicated India’s first riverine multimodal terminal on river Ganga (National Waterway-1) at Varansi to nation.
  • Country’s first container cargo that travelled on river Ganga (National Waterway-1) from Kolkata to Varanasi.
  • Twin events not only marked watershed moments in development of Inland Water Transport (IWT) in India but also broke grounds for a spurt in business activities on National Water way (NH-1) as is evident w/a slew of cargo owners like PepsiCo, Emami Agrotech, IFFCO Fertilizers, Dabur India that have come on board inland waterways.
  • Union Finance Minister, in his Budget Speech for 2014 - 15, delivered on July 10,2014, had announced Jal Marg Vikas Project (JMVP) on National Waterway-1 (NH-1) to enable commercial navigation on Varanasi Haldia stretch of river Ganga.
  • Of three multimodal terminals being built on river Ganga under JMVP, one at Varanasi is already operational & second in Sahibganj (Jharkhand) will be ready by mid-2019.

Jal Marg Vikas Project (National Waterway-1, River Ganga)

  • NH-1 along w/proposed Eastem Dedicated Fright Corridor & NH-2, constitute Eastem Transport Corridor of India connecting National Capital Region (NCR) w/eastern & north eastern states & will function as a link to Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Nepal & other east & Southeast Asian countries thru Kolkata Port & Indo- Bangladesh Protocol Rote.
  • A developed IWT will not only augment overall transport capacity of country, but will also help correct transport modal mix that impose huge logistics costs on Indian economy.
  • Inland Water ways Authority of India (IWAI), aims to increase cargo transportation thru IWT on National Waterways in country from 55 million tonners currently to 150 million tonners by 2023.
  • Project not only creates an alternative, cost effective mode of transport but will create ‘Room for River’ which has proved to be an effective flood mitigating & river conservancy measure internationally especially in low lying Netherlands.

IWAI at Social Congregations

  • Inland waterways Authority of India (IWAI) has been working hard towards facilitating safe passenger movements at Kumbh-Mela, 2019.
  • Kumbh-Mela is scheduled to be held at Sangam, Prayagraj from January 15 to March 15,2019.
  • Further, two IWAI vessels namely CL Kasturba & SL Kamla will be deployed for pilgrim movement.

Promoting River Tourism

  • IWAI facilities cruise operations on NW-1 (river Ganga) from Kolkata to Varanasi in collaboration w/private cruise operators.
  • Facilitates provided by IWAI include navigation aids like night navigation facility, embarking & facilitating expeditious crossing of Farrakka Navigation Lock, pilotage, & assistance in distress.

National Waterway-2

  • River Brahmaputra from Bangladesh Border to Sadiya (891 km) was declared as National Waterway-2 in 1988.

Indo- Bangladesh Protocol Route

  • NW-3 has been fully developed for commercial navigation, while NW-4 & NW-5 are being developed w/infrastructure of Inland Waterways.
  • Development of 8 new National waterways taken up during 2017 - 18 as:
  • Gandak river w/a length of 277 km has been declared as National waterway-37.
  • It is located from Bhaisaslotal Barrage near Triveni Ghat to Hajipur in Bihar & Uttar Pradesh.
  • Rup Narayan River w/a length of 72 km has been declared as National Waterway -86.
  • It is located from Pratappur to Geonkhali in West Bengal.
  • Alappuzha-Kottayam- Athirampuzha canal w/a length of 38 km has been declared as National waterway-9.
  • It is locted from Boat jetty Alappuzha to Athrampuzha market in Kerala.
  • Sundarbans waterways w/a length of 201 km has been declared as National waterway-97 in West Bengal.
  • Key cargo commodities on Barak river NW 16 are Construction material, Rice, coal, Paper & Goods.
  • Project cost is INR 76.01 CR.
  • Cumberjua Canal (NW27) – 17 km: Confluence of Cumberjua & Zuari rivers near Cortalim ferry terminal to confluence of cumberjua & Mnadovi rivers near Sao Martias Vidhan Parishad.
  • Mandovi river (NW68) -41 km: Bridge at Usagon to confluence of Mandovi river w/Arabian Sea at Reis Margos.
  • Zuari river (NW111) -50 km: Sanvordem Bridge to Mormagao Port.

UDAN – Giving New Meaning to Air Connectivity

  • As per an International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) study, output multiplier & employment multiplier are 3.25 & 6.10, respectively.
  • In 2016 Govt. of India launched National Civil Aviation Policy (NCAP) to provide an of various aviation subsectors like airlines, airports, cargo, etc.

Making Air Travel Convenient

  • Since launching of UDAN in 2017,61 new sectors have been added till date enhancing power of aviation network.
  • Scheme provides for revival & upgradation of existing airstrips in small cities where UDAN operations would happen.
  • This new approach not only makes air services available for limited population bases in smaller towns, it also makes services affordable for them.

Salient Features of RCS-UDAN

  • Regional Connectivity Scheme- UDAN intends to enable air operations on unserved routes connecting regional growth & make flying affordable for masses. \
  • RCS-UDAN envisages providing connectivity thru revival of existing air-strips & airports.

Udana –A win –Win for All Stakeholders

Image of Win for All Stakeholders

Image of Win for All Stakeholders

Image of Win for All Stakeholders

  • Financial stimulus in from of concessions from central & state Govt. & airport operators & Viability Gap Funding to selected airlines to kick off operations from Unserved/underserved airport so that passengers fares are kept affordable.
  • RCS-UDAN is a demand driven scheme where interested airlines & helicopter operators are selected thru competitive bidding process.
Image of Infrastructure for New India

Image of Infrastructure for New India

Image of Infrastructure for New India

Implementation Mechanisms

  • Airport Authority of India (AAI) is providing necessary support to state Govt. in developing airport, documentation for licensing, procurement of security & fire tender equipment, etc.
  • In some defence airports, standard operating procedures (SOPs) have been worked out in consultation w/Ministry of defence.
  • Airports like Nanded in Maharashtra & Vidyanagar in Karnataka have become shining examples under UDAN.
  • A positive outcome of UDAN also includes regulatory framework for ‘no- frill’ airports & ‘aircraft-centric security’ approach which has cut down cost of infrastructure & operations that will help sustainability of air connectivity to smaller cities.
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Infrastructure: Yojana February 2019 (In Hindi)

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Yojana February 2019: Infrastructure

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- Published/Last Modified on: April 3, 2019


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