Yojana February 2019: Infrastructure (Part-2) (Download PDF)

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Bharatmala Pariyojana: Biggest Revolution in Indian Highways: Widen NHs was made in 1998 during Atal Bihari Vajpayee Govt. by launching National Highways Development Program (NHDP), which had two major components of 5,846 km of Golden Quadrilateral (GQ) connecting four metro cities of Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai & Kolkata & & 7,142 kilometers network connecting Srinagar to Kanyakumari & Silchar to Porbandar. These networks are known as North South & East West Corridors.

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Infrastructure: Yojana February 2019 (In English)

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Yojana February 2019: Infrastructure

  • Upgrade NHs was taken in October 2017 when central Govt. approved phase-I of Bharatmala Pariyojana covering 24,800 kilometers w/an estimated expenditure of Rs. 3.85 lakh Cr.
  • Massive highway development program has many firsts to its credit; starting from preparation of plan to identifying highway stretches & new approach of building roads on new alignment.
  • Road transport & highways Ministry has termed as “crow flight” alignments.

Components

Economic Corridors:

  • Origin destination study which was commissioned w/aim of improving logistics efficiency identified 44 new Economic Corridors.
  • Some of these are Mumbai –Agra, Mumbai –Kolkata, Chennai- Madurai, Bilaspur- Delhi, Pune- Vijayawada, Indore- Jaipur & Amritsar- Jamnagar.
  • National & economic corridors along w/their inter corridor & feeder routes would be able to carry 80 per cent of our fright traffic.

Inter corridor & feeder routes:

  • Origin destination study also identified a network of shorter inter corridor routes connecting two existing corridor network.
  • These roads are expected to carry around 20 per cent of fright.
  • Effectiveness of corridors can be improved by development of feeder routes.

Improvement in Efficiency of Nation Corridors:

  • Currently, NHs including GQ & North South & East West corridor carry nearly 35 per cent of India’s freight.
  • Average traffic in six national corridors is more than 30,000 passenger car units (PCU).
  • Under Bharatmala programme, all these stretches will be widened to 6 - 8 lanes.

Development of Border & International Connectivity Roads:

  • Around 3,300 kilometers of border roads have been identified to be built & widened along international border for their strategic importance.
  • Around 2,000 kilometers of roads are required for connecting India’s major highway connecting to international trade points to facilitate EXIM trade w/Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh & Myanmar.

Development of Coastal & port Connectivity Roads:

  • Under Bharatmala programme about 2,100 kilometers of coastal roads have been identified to be built along coast.
  • These will also improve commectivity to ports to facilitate EXIM trade.
  • A major focus will be to improve linkage to state Govt. owned & private ports.

Development of Green-field Expressways:

  • Bharatmala programme also envisages building expressways close to national & Economic Corridors where traffic has breached 50,000 PCUs & there are multiple choke points.
  • Govt. has empowered NHAI Board to take decision & approve projects.
  • MHAI Board is an inter ministerial entity, which has representation from Highways & Finance Ministries, Niti Aayog & Highway Authority.
  • Network, as identified under Bharatmala network, will cater to 80 per cent of inter district freight movement in country.

Funding for Program:

  • NHAI has started programme of monetizing already to generate about Rs. 34,000 Cr.
  • This scheme is know as Toll Operate Transfer (TOT), which means completed stretches are bid out to privet players for collecting toll for certain years.

Transforming Connectivity: Indian Railways on the Go

  • Third largest railway network in the world,
  • Railways maintain a gigantic network of 63,000 kms & run 22,000 trains to transport 1.50 million passengers daily.
  • This requires keeping infrastructure such as track, bridges, signaling & telecommunications in fit condition.
  • Allocation for Railways has increased to Rs. 5.30 lakh Cr. In past five years.

Connecting Seven Sisters

  • In North East, rail connectivity has come to all Seven Sister States of Assam, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Tripura, Mizoram, Manipur & Arunachal Pradesh.
  • Meghalaya came on rail map w/flagging off to Mendipathar in Meghalaya on 29 November, 2014 by Prime Minister.
  • On July 31,2016, Agartala New Delhi ‘Tripura Sundari Express’ was flagged off.
  • Agartala New Delhi Rajdhani Express was launched on October 28,2017.
  • It trudges longest route (2,422 km) for any Rajdhani Express in service.
  • Jiribam first railway station in Manipur was connected by broad gauge line.
  • Prime Minister flagged off first passenger train service to Jiribam on May 27,2016.
  • Bogibeel Bridge longest Rail cum road Bridge of country running 4.94 km in length across river Brahmaputra near Dibrugarh in Assam has been commissioned, connecting Assam & Arunachal Pradesh.
  • Bridge has double line track w/three lane road & 74 km of total railway track.
  • India’s tallest bridge w/pier height of 141 m is being constructed on Irang River at Noney in Tamenglong district, Manipur as part of Jiribam Tupul – Imphal new line, a marvel of railway engineering.
  • Its height will be almost equal to two Qutub Minars combined.

Capacity Augmentation

  • Indian Railways & Railways launched two dedicated Freight Corridor (EDFCs) projects, eastern & Western Dedicated Freight Corridors (EDFC &WDFC), for purpose.
  • Culminating in successful trial of freight trines over Phulera- Atari section of Western Dedicated Freight Corridor (WDFC) & Khurja- Bhadan section of Eastern Dedicated Freight Corridor (EDFC) in august & November 2018, respectively.
  • Commissioning of two projects spanning over 3376 route kms, will not only help railways regain its market share of freight transport but guarantee at same time, an efficient, reliable, safe & cheaper system of goods movement for country.
  • In last four years, railways made significant achievements & 2555 km of New Lines, 3396 km of Doubling were commissioned.
  • During 2017 - 18,1862 km was commissioned including 409 of New Lines, 454 km of Gauge Conversion & 999 km of doubling.

Speeding up Electrification

  • To reduce dependence on imported diesel fuel & carbon emission, Indian Railways have embarked upon a major programme to speed up electrification of railway lines.
  • Around two thirds of fright & more than half of passage traffic in Indian Railways moves on eclectic traction
  • Electric traction accounts for just 37 per cent of total energy expenses of Indian Railways.
  • Indian railways is likely to save Rs. 13,510 Cr. Per annum in fuel bills & same will improve its finances.
  • During 2017 - 18,4, 087 RKM of broad gauge routes have been commissioned on electric traction against a target of 4,000 RKM.
  • Previous year (2016 - 17), achievement on electrification was 1,646 RKM.
  • Electrification will reduce use of imported fossil fuels there by improving energy security to nation.
  • Consumption of high speed diesel oil will be reduced by about 2.83 billion liters per annum & a reduction in greenhouse gas environmental impact of railways.
  • It will help railways in enhancing line capacity due to higher speed & higher haulage capacity of electric locomotives.
  • There will be improved signaling systems, which will lead to enhanced safety in train operations.
  • Base of executing agencies have been broadened & projects covering 1735 RKM have already been entrusted to PSUs i. e. IRCON, RITES & PGCIL.

Ensuring Safety

  • To ensure connectivity w/safety, railways created Rashtriya Rail Sanraksha Kosh (RRSK), a dedicated fund for safety projects.
  • For clearing backlog of critical safety related works.
  • This includes track renewals & safety, strengthening of bridges, elimination of unmanned level crossing, upgradation of maintenance facilities, signaling to shock resistant LHB coaches w/greater safety features, along w/retro fitment of ICF coaches.
  • 5,479 Unmanned Level Crossing have been eliminated in last four years.
  • Railways signaling system is being completely modernized & include in works program of 2018 - 19 for renewal programme on complete 60,000 route kilometers (RKMs) of Broad Gauge (BG) network of Indian Railways.
  • There were 56792 unmanned level crossing out of which 3479 were on Broad Gauge, 1135 on Meter Gauge & 1178 on Narrow Gauge.

Offering Better Services

  • To make railways smart, for punctuality.
  • Data loggers have been put at interchange points which would be computer generated.
  • Step has already improved punctuality to 73 - 74 per cent.
  • Indian Railways is working on putting a GPS device on every locomotive so that every train can be tracked on mobile phones knowing exactly where they are.
  • Indian Railways has also planned to make 6,000 railway station Wi-Fi enabled.
  • Govt. has improved trains & coaches including launching Tejas, Anthodia & Humasafar trains.
  • ‘Make in India’ has been given a boost by indigenous manufacturing of Semi High speed (160 kmph) self propelled Train 18.
  • To make rail transportation attractive to its customers, various initiatives were taken in 2017 - 18 which including tariff rationalization, classification of new commodities, expansion of freight basket thru containersation, new delivery models like RO-RO services, long Term Tariff Contract policy w/key container (DSDC), customer friendly rationalization of weighment policy, electronic Registration for Demand of Wagons (e-RD) etc.

Connected North East: Building Pan India Ties

  • North eastern Region (NER) consists of eight states, namely Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim & Tripura.
  • Region accounts for 3.78 per cent of India’s population & covers 7.98 per cent of its total geographical area.
  • Its contribution to national GDP is 2.5 per cent.

Accelerating Infrastructure Development

  • Special Accelerated Road Development Programme for North-Eastern region (SARDAP-NE) IS ANOTHER INITIATIVE OF Govt. to fast- track infrastructure project in region.

Fast Tracking Highway Projects

  • Project like Kaladan Multi- Modal Transit Transport Project, India Myanmar Thailand Trilateral Highway, 5 km road stretch between border city of Zokhawthar in Mizoram & Rith in Myanmar need to be expedited besides improving” about 4,099 km in North- East”.

New Roadway Projects

  • Minister had inaugurated upgraded Jowai- Ratacherra (Meghalaya Assam border) section of national Highway -06 at Shillong & dedicated 102 km road project to nation, constructed at a cost of Rs. 683 Cr.
  • 102 km long stretch of road is very important for development of industries in Meghalaya as it passes thru cement & coal belts of state & reduces travel time from 4 hours to 2.5 hours.
  • This facilitates trucks & heavy vehicles coming from Brahmaputra Valey to move smoothly in a record time frame to Silchar in Barak Valley, w/l Assam, thus providing connectivity to states like Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura & southern Assam.

Indo Myanmar Connectivity

  • Two sides discussed status of project for upgradation of Kalewa- Yagyi stretch of India Myanmar Thailand (IMT) Trilateral Highway & starting of Imphal Mandalay bus service.

Bharatmala Project

  • Govt. plans 28 Ring Roads under Bharatmala project in region identifying 125 Choke Points & 66 Congestion Points to reduce congestion.
  • Major cities in North Eastern state where such intervention have been planned are Guwahati, Imphal, Silchar, Shillong, Dibrugarh, Dimapur & Aizawl.
  • Govt. , in October 2017 had approved a mega plan to build 83,677 km of highways in country over next five years at a cost of about Rs. 6.92 lakh Cr. which includes ambitious after National Highways Development Programme.
  • Centre has approved a scheme named North East Special Infrastructure Development Scheme (NESIDS), a 100 per cent Central Sector Scheme to be implemented till march 2020.

India’s Longest Bridge

  • In may 2017, Prime minister had inaugurated country’s longest bridge over Lohit river in Assam 9.15 km long bridge, named after Dadasaheb Phalke awardee & legendary lyricist singer Bhupen Hazarika who hailed from Sadiya.
  • Bridge, built at a cost of Rs. 2,056 Cr. , is 3.55 km longer than Bandra- Worli Sea link.
  • Length of bridge, including viaducts, is 9.15 km w/7.3 km approach road from Dhola side & 12.5 km from side.

Affordable Housing: Taking Centre Stage

Population Growth & Housing

  • Urban population in India may reach 600 million by 2031 (over 50oer cent of total population), from 377 million in 2011 & total number of cities is expected to rise to 87 (from 50 in 2011).
  • Urban share of GDP is projected to increase to 75 per cent in 2031 from an estimated 62 - 63 per cent in 2009 - 2010.
  • Govt. commitment to have housing for all by 2022 is vision which presents dramatically different opportunities & requirements for stakeholders & realizing this dream can be a step towards building a brighter India
  • This transformational scheme of “Housing for all by 2022” was launched by Gol on 17th June 2015 under Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY) w/an aim to provide affordable housing to under poor.

Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY) Housing for All 2022

  • PMAY- Urban (PMAY-U) aims at ‘Housing for All’ to be achieved by year 2022.
  • Mission has four components:
  • A- In situ slum redevelopment (ISSR):
  • B- Affordable housing in partnership (AHP):
  • C – Credit linked subsidy scheme (CLSS):
  • D- Beneficiary- led construction or enhancement (BLC):

Urban Housing Initiatives

Union budge 2017 - 18 announced a number of measures to boost affordable housing: -

  • Affordable Housing has been given Infrastructure status
  • One Cr. Rural houses will be created by 2019
  • National Housing Bank to refinance Rs. 20,000 Cr. Loans
  • Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana to get Rs. 23,000 Cr.
  • Real estate development to get tax relief on unsold stock as liability to pay capital gains will arise only in year a project is completed
  • Instead of Built up area of 30 & 60 sq. meters, carpet area of 30 & 60 sq. meters will be applicable for affordable housing
  • Holding period for capital gains tax for immovable property reduced from 3 years to 2 years
  • Tax break of 1 year post receipt of completion certificate, for unsold stock
  • Indra Awas Yojana will be extended to 600 districts
  • Indexation for capital gains shifted from 01 - 04 - 81 to 01 - 04 - 2001

Housing Finance

  • Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY).
  • Under scheme Govt. has announced that an interest rate of only loans above Rs. 9 lakh & 3 per cent on amount above Rs. 12 lakh.
  • Due to big push from PMAY to create housing for all, a new group of Affordable Housing Finance Companies has emerged, which is now serving low-income, urban informal customers using an innovation pioneered in India- field based credit assessment.

Inverting in Children: Investing in Future

  • Act of Right to free & Compulsory Education to all children in age group of six to fourteen years was passed in 2009, a very progressive step indeed.

Integrating Skills Education

  • Setting up a National Skills based initiatives of Govt. to optimize return on investments must be a stated goal.
  • Section 23 (2) of RTE Act, 2009 has been amended to ensure that all untrained in service teachers working in Govt. , Govt. aides, & Private un aided schools should acquire minimum qualification as laid down n by an academic authority, authorized by Central Govt. by 31th March 2019.
  • It further includes reference on class wise, subject wise Learning Outcomes.
  • A national Achievement Survey (NAS) based on learning outcomes has been conducted on 13th November, 2017 for class III, V & VIII w/a sample frame up to district level to enable States/UTs to identify gaps in learning outcomes at district level & design strategies to address those gaps.

Creating Adequate Infrastructure in Health Care

  • Life expectancy has doubled from 32 years in 1947 to 66.8 years at present; Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) has fallen to 50 per thousand live births.

Healthcare System & Structure

  • Cost of surgery in India is about one tenth of that in US or Western Europe.
  • Country has 476 medical colleges, 313 colleges for BDS courses & 249 college which conduct MDS courses.
  • There has been a total admission of 52,646 in 476 Medial Colleges & 27060 in BDS & 6233 in MDS during 2017 - 18.

Towards Universal Access to Health Care

  • Universal access to health care is a well articulated goal for both global institutions & national Govt.
  • India’s National Health Policy, 2017 envisions goal of attaining highest possible level of health & well being for all at all ages thru a preventive & promotive health care orientation in all development policies & universal access to good quality health care service w/o financial hardship to citizens.
  • Aushman Bharat Mission, is latest initiative for expanding health insurance net & targets 10 Cr. Poor & deprived rural families.

Major Govt. Initiatives

  • Gol launched Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PMJAY), to provided health insurance worth Rs. 500,000 (US $7,124354) to over 100 million families every year.
  • Gol has approved Ayushman Bharat National Health Protection Mission as centrally Sponsored Scheme contributed by both Centre & state Govt. at a ratio of 60: 40 for all States & 90: 10 for hilly North Eastern States & 60: 40 for Union Territories w/legislature.

Pradhan Mantri Swasthya Suraksha Yojana (PMSSY)

  • Pradhan Mantri Swasthya Suraksha Yojana (PMSSY) has objectives of correcting regional imbalances in availability of affordable/reliable tertiary healthcare services & also to augment facilities for quality medical education in country.
  • PMSSY has two components:

1. Setting up of AIIMS like institutions

2. Upgradation of Govt. Medical College Institutions.

  • Six AIIMS like institution, one each in State of Bihar (Patna), Chhattisgarh (Raipur), Madhya Pradesh (Bhopal), Orissa (Bhubaneswar), Rajasthan (Jodhpur) & Uttaranchal (Rishikesh) have been set up under PMSSY scheme.
  • PMJAY aims to address healthcare needs pf India’s poorest 100 million households.

Kayakalp

  • “Kayakalp” initiative has been able to encourage public health facilities in country to work towards attainment of excellence in cleanliness & hygiene.
  • “Kayakalp” is becoming instrumental in building confidence of uses in public health facilities.

Mission Indradhanush

  • Mission Indradhannush w/aim of improving coverage of immunization in country.
  • Aims to achieve at least 90 per cent immunization coverage by December 2018 which will cover unvaccinated & partially vaccinated children in rural & urban areas of India.

Private sector in Health Care

  • Supreme Court in a recent judgment directed Govt. hospitals in Delhi AIIMS at brining poor rural patients at par w/urban rich patients who till now had been sole beneficiaries of such private institution.

Market Size

  • Health care can increase three fold to Rs. 8.6 trillion (US $133.44 billion) by 2022.

Achievements

  • In 2017 Gol approved Nation Nutrition Mission (NNM), a joint effort of Ministry of Health & Family Welfare (MoHFW) & Ministry of Women & Chide Development (WCD) towards a lifecycle approach for interrupting intergeneration cycle of under nutrition.
  • As of November 15,2017,4.45 million patients were benefitted from Affordable Medicines & Reasonable Implants for Treatment (AMRIT) Pharmacies.
  • As of December 15,2017, Gol approved National Medical Commission Bill 2017.
  • It aims to promote medical education reform.

Road Ahead: Healthcare infrastructure & services

  • India’s competitive advantage also lies in increased success rate of Indian companies in getting Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) approvals.
  • Inia also offer vast opportunities in R&D as well as medical tourism.
  • To sum up, there are vast opportunities for investment in healthcare infrastructure in both urban & rural India.
  • Garg (2018) suggests that public healthcare service should ensure three ” Es- Expand –Equity - Excellence”.

Other Important Notes

PM Lunches Gangajal Project to Provide Better & more assured Water Supply to Agra

  • Prime Minister dedicated to nation, Gangajal project.
  • Gangajal project aims to bring 140 cusecs of Ganga water to Agra.
  • This will help meet drinking water demands in city.

PM launches Infrastructure Development Project in Odisha

  • Prime Minister launched server development project worth Rs. 1500 Cr. & laid foundation stone of various project in Balangir in Odisha on 14 January, 2019.
  • He dedicated Multi Modal Logistics Park (MMLP) Jharsuguda to nation.

PM Dedicates Kollam Bypass on NH-66 to Nation

  • Prime Minister dedicated 13 km, 2-lane Kollam bypass on NH-66 to nation on 15 January 2019.
  • Kollam Bypass will reduce travel time between Alappuzha &Thiruvananthapuram & decongest traffic in Kollam town.

Benefits of Inland Water Transport

  • IWT provides supplementary mode of transport which is cost effective, fuel efficient & environment friendly

1. Low emission- CO_2 equivalent greenhouse gases emission per tonne km of cargo transportation is 15g by IWT, 28g Rail & 64g by Road transport.

2. Low energy consumption -1 HP van 4000 kg load in Water, 500 kg by Rail & 150 kg on Road.

3. Low fuel cost -1 liter can move 105 tonne km by IWT, 85 tonne-km by Rail & 24 tonne km of fright by Road.

  • IWT can provide optimal model mix by integrating river transport w/other modes thereby reducing total logistic cost.
  • It eases congestion on Road & rail Networks.
  • IWT requires very little land acquisition as compared to Road & rail modes.
  • Caters to needs of relatively under developed hinterland.

Shyama Prasad Mukherjee Rurban Mission (SPMRM)

  • Shyama Prasad Mukherjee Rurban Mission (SPMRM) ” was launched by prime Minister on February 22,2016, from Kurubhat in Rajnandgaon district of Chhattisgarh.
  • Aim of Mission was to develop rural growth clusters in all States & Union Territories (UTs)
  • This unique programme is designed to deliver catalytic interventions to rural areas on threshold of growth.

National Heritage City Development & Augmentation Yojana (HRIDAY)

Atal Mission for Rejuvenation & Urban Transformation (AMRUT)

  • Gol launched Atal Mission for Rejuvenation & Urban Transformation (AMRUT) w/aim of providing basic civic amenities like water supply, sewerage, urban transport, parks as to improve quality of life for all especially poor & disadvantaged.
  • Focus of Mission is on infrastructure creation that has a direct link to provision of better service to citizens.
  • Purpose of ” AMRUT” mission is to (i) ensure that every household has access to a tap w/assured supply of water & a sewerage connection (ii) increase amenity value of cities by developing greenery & well maintained open spaces e. g. parks & (iii) reduce pollution by switching facilities for non motorized transport e. g. walking & cycling.

Mission Components

  • Components of AMRUT consist of capacity building, reform implementation, water supply, sewerage & septage management, storm water drainage, urban transport & development of green spaces & parks.

o Water Supply

o Sewerage

o Septage

o Storm Water Drainage

o Urban Transport

Water Resources & Ganga Rejuvenation Recent Milestones

National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG):

Ganga Rejuvenation:

  • On rural sanitation front, all 4465 villages on bank of river Ganga have been made open Defecation Free (ODF) & 10,83,688 Individual Household Toilets have been constructed by ministry of Drinking Water & Sanitation (MoDWS).
  • During financial year 2018 - 19 (till 30.11. 2018), National Mission for Clean Ganga has released Rs. 1532.59 Cr. To states, Central Public Sector Undertakings for implementation of programme, including expenditure incurred for establishment.

Dam Projects:

Shahpur Kandi Dam Project:

  • This project will help in creation of additional irrigation potential of 5000 ha in Punjab State & 32173 ha in J&K State & also efficient management of 1.18 lac ha area under UBDC system in Punjab.

Interlinking of Rivers (ILRs):

Air Connectivity Reaches Sikkim

  • Pakyong Airport was inaugurated by Prime Minister in Sikkim recently.
  • This is first airport in Himalayan State & 100th airport in country.
  • Airport has been part of UDAN scheme.

More than 664 kms of Metro Rail Projects in 15 Cities

  • Metro Rail Policy 2017 bridges has gap for ascertaining & enhancing feasibility of metro rail project from economic, social & environmental perspective.
  • This aims to focus on systematic planning & Govt. of metro rail systems & act as a guide to State Govt. for preparing comprehensive proposals for Metrorail projects.

Constitution (103rd) Amendment Act, 2019

  • President has given his assent to Constitution (one Hundred & Twenty Fourth Amendment) Bill, 2019.
  • Act providing 10 per cent reservation in Govt. jobs & education institutions to Economically Weaker Sections (EWS) among upper castes has come into effect.
  • Govt. notified 14th January as date on which will provisions of Constitution (103rd) Amendment Act, 2019 will be effective.
  • Act amends Articles 15 & 16 of Constitution by adding a clause which allows States to make special provision for advancement of economically weaker sections in general category.

Sanitation Revolution – Creating Infrastructure

  • ODF & interventions dealing w/solid & liquid waste management (SLWM) are being implemented by MDWS.

Swachha Bharat Mission – Some Recent Milestones

  • SBM –G Achievements in 4 Years:

1. Sanitation coverage increased from 39 % to 93%

2.85 million toilets have been built by households

3.450,000 of 600,000 villages are now ODF

4. Out of 699 districts 460 are ODF

5.450,000 grassroots motivators, swachhagrahis are stationed in villages

National Youth Parliament Festival 2019 Launched

  • Youth Parliament for young people provide a chance to youth to brainstorm about new India & to find ways & chalk out plans to realize our resolves before 2022.

FIRST SWADESH DARSHAN PROJECT IN MEGHALAYA INAUGURATED

  • “Development of North East Circuit: Umiam (Lake view) – U Lum Sohpetbneng – Mawdiangdiang – Orchid Lake Resort

CABINET APPROVES ‘THE CONSTITION (SCHEDULED TRIBES) ORDER (AMENDMENT) BILL, 2018’ FOR REVISION IN LIST OF SCHEDULED TRIBES OF ARUNACHAL PRADESH

  • Kollam bypass will reduce travel time between Alappuzha & Thiruvananthapuram & decongest traffic in Kollam town.
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Infrastructure: Yojana February 2019 (In Hindi)

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Yojana February 2019: Infrastructure

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- Published/Last Modified on: April 3, 2019

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