Yojana Feburary 2018 Summary : Public Grievance Redressal (Part - 1) (Download PDF)


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Effective Grievance Redressal: Heart of Good Governance - 📝 Government of India has established an internet based Centralized Public Grievances Redress and Monitoring System (CPGRAMS).

  • to facilitate all citizens to lodge grievances for redressal

  • enables submission of grievances by citizens from anywhere, anytime to the ministries/departments/organizations

  • enables tracking of grievances with the help of unique registration number

  • grievances received manually are also digitized and uploaded to the system

  • enable departments/ministries to take appropriate action and submit Action Taken Report (ATR) – open for citizens

  • To redress public grievances in a centralized transparent accountable and efficient manner.

  • Standardized web based solution and integrated application to register and to redress the grievances.

  • 139 ministries/departments/states and UTs and other apex organizations are linked

  • Available in Hindi

  • Launched in local languages in 9 states/UTs (Haryana, Odisha, Mizoram, Rajasthan, Meghalaya, Puducherry, Uttarakhand, Jharkhand, and Punjab)

How Does It Work?

  • Grievances received are forwarded to the department/ministries concerned.

  • Redress of grievances is done in a decentralized manner.

  • Department periodically reviews the status of redress of public grievances for effective management of grievances.

CPGRAMS made a good beginning but need to be up scaled.

  • Data available in CPGRAMS needs to be more effectively used to identify the root cause and focus on reforms.

  • Needs better integration and a parallel mechanism in respective department/ministries and organizations.

Public Grievance Mechanism in India

Departments integrated through CPGRAMS are:

  • Public Grievance Mechanism of the Prime Minister’s Office (PMO)

  • President’s secretariat

  • Directorate of Public Grievances (Cabinet Secretariat), Department of Administrative Reforms & Public Grievances (DARPG) 👌

  • Pensioner’s Portal

The grievances in any of the above entities will be transferred to the Central Ministries/Departments or State Governments online through CPGRAMS

What is DARPG?

  • DARPG is the policy making, monitoring and coordinating department for public grievances.

How is CPGRAMS Different?

  • Every ministry/department have nodal officers for Public Grievances

  • Officials handle redressal of grievances based on the internal work allotted.

  • Well-reasoned speaking order is given while disposing off a grievance.

  • 👌 Every Ministry/department will have director of Public Grievances whom citizens can approach every Wednesday.

  • Dashboard is also prepared for accessing the relevant information pertaining to pendency of grievances.

  • Mobile app to lodge & track public grievances on Android mobiles was launched in 2015.

  • In last 3 years, numbers of grievances have increased along with the disposal rate.

  • Integrate all the State Public Grievance Redressal System with single Indian Public Grievance Redressal System

  • Some states use CPGRAMS, but few states have their own grievances redressal systems.

  • CPGRAMS forwards grievances of only those States which are connected to CPGRAMS.

  • CPGRAMS launched with local language interface in 9 states/UTs - Haryana, Odisha, Rajasthan, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Uttarakhand, Jharkhand, Punjab and Puducherry.

New Developments

Newer version of CPGRAMS contains

  • Horizontal transfer of grievances among ministries/departments

  • Bulk disposal of similar grievances

  • One time registration to avoid duplication of complaints

  • Escalation of unresolved complaints to higher authority

  • Multiple forwarding

  • Local language interfacing

  • Lodge grievance on PG portal through Common Service Centre located on the area by paying a nominal fee.

  • New mobile app with some additional features which is more user friendly has been developed.

  • Integrate app with Unified Mobile Application for New age Governance (UMANG). 👌

Grievance Analysis

  • Review existing policies/procedures for systematic change

  • Undertake root cause analysis and recommend systematic reforms.

  • Identify 81 reforms to be done.

  • Out of 81 recommendations, 35 have been implemented, major ones are

  • Automatic refunds on cancellation of Railway Tickets

  • Single Window Pension through disbursing banks

  • Intensive mechanized coach cleaning

  • e-verification of income tax returns

  • Speedy income tax returns upto Rs. 50, 000

Undertake Grievance Analysis Study & 100 reforms for reducing grievances, which would lead to better public services

Award Scheme

  • DAPRG has launched an Award Scheme for recognising outstanding performance in redressal of public grievance through Certificate of Appreciation.

  • Considers number of grievances addressed & feedbacks received

  • 21 certificate of Appreciation have been issued

  • Public Grievance Call Centre has been made operational with effect from February 2016 about receiving of bulk grievances, for expeditious disposal of grievances pending for more than 2 months.

Citizen’s or Client’s Charter

Tool for governance & declaration by a government department that highlights the

  • Standards of service delivery that it subscribes to, the availability of choice to consumers

  • Avenues of grievances redressal

  • Empower the citizen so that they can demand committed standard of services and avail remedies in case of non-compliance by service provider.

  • Demand driven rather than supply driven

  • The link for this charter is http://goicharter.nic.in

E-Governance: Grievance Redress for a New India 2022

  • With advancement of Information and Communication Technology, it has become possible many public services through online modes.

👌 Sevottam and CPGRAMS

  • DARPG has developed a framework called sevottam, which essentially means Excellence in Public Service.

What is Sevottam Scheme?

Department must have

  • citizen’s charter outlining main services with service standards and timelines

  • public grievance redress mechanism

  • system with assessment and improvement of public service delivery standards (which includes customer feedback, employee motivation and infrastructure)

  • It include seven steps

    • Define

    • Set standards

    • Develop capability

    • Perform

    • Monitor

    • Evaluate

  • Continuous improvement

What Are the Innovative Schemes Launched by DARPG?

The schemes launched are

  • Public Grievances Call Centre

  • Twitter Seva

  • A new version of CPGRAMS

  • Gravitate towards IT base includes an award scheme for Performance through Certificate of Appreciation.

  • Online dashboard for monitoring reforms.

Public Service Delivery Act

  • Proposed Right of Citizens for Time Bound Delivery of Goods and Services and redressal of their Grievances Bill in 2011. 👌

  • Bill provided for right to time bound delivery of goods and services to every citizen

  • Mandatory publication of citizen’s charter

  • Grievance redressal mechanism for non-compliance of citizen’s charter

  • Penalty on defaulting officer

  • Compensation to the customer (upto the same amount)

The bill lapsed with the dissolution of 15th Lok Sabha

It is expected to be launched as a scheme.

UMANG (Unified Mobile Application for New-age Governance)

  • Single platform to all Indian citizens to access pan-Indian e-Gov services.

  • Services include services provided by Central government, state government or local bodies or other utility services from private organizations.


  • MyGov. in - cutting edge participatory governance initiative involving the common citizen at large.

  • It was initiated in 2014

  • Dissemination on information and seeking public opinion

  • Provides citizen a voice in the governance process

  • More than 1.78 million users have used it

  • More than 10, 000 posts per week

Other Citizen Centric Services

  • Lokvani project 👌

    • Initiated by UP government

    • Helps citizens to make their grievances in easy manner and get redress in 15 days

  • Jansunwai or e-samvad

    Dedicated for grievance redress through e-governance

  • Aponline. co 👌

    • Andhra Pradesh government

    • One of the comprehensive state government set ups for an interface between the government and citizens

    • Has an integrated grievance redress channel.

    • The channel is “meekosam. ap. gov. in”

    • a mobile app was launched in September 2017

  • e-Pariharan

  • launched in Kerala

  • to facilitate online lodging of complaints by SMS, WhatsApp, email etc.

Public Grievances Beyond G2C

  • Integrated Grievance Redressal Mechanism (INGRAM) is a portal launched by Department of Consumer Affairs for customer dissatisfaction

  • Brought customers, government agencies private company regulators and call-centres onto a single platform.

Future Outlook

Few fundamental principles that need to be pursued are

  • Make services available to public in faceless, paperless and cashless mode

  • Provide connectivity and digital identity to all

  • Target benefits through Aadhaar enabled direct Benefits transfer

  • Simplify forms

  • Process and provide platforms

Report on Good Governance says

  • Capacity building & knowledge updating

  • Streamlining process, monitoring and attitudinal shift

  • Awareness in public

  • Simplify system and process for filing a request

  • Set up institutional mechanisms for seeking in constructive cooperation

  • Provide support to public for hassle free filing

Significant Strides of ICT

  • Biometric attendance for government employees

  • Digitize database for beneficiaries

  • Seed with Aadhaar numbers

  • Use PoS machines for beneficiary authentication

  • Transfer funds to Aadhaar linked bank accounts.

👌 E-Taal

  • a web portal disseminating electronic transactions of e-governance projects

  • over 30 billion transactions covering more than 3500 services have been undertaken

CPGRAMS (discussed Above)

  • All G2C services must move online eliminating need for public to visit government offices for issuances of licences, Permissions, Certificates, Registrations, social benefits etc.
  • The public service delivery Act has already been enacted in 20 states and more states need to follow.
  • 👌 CONFONET scheme—all consumer forum should be computerized and networked to enable online dissemination of information and ensure quicker disposal of cases.

Public Grievances Redressal: Governance Challenge

  • Public Grievances challenge requires multi layered interventions necessitating timely capture of grievances, effective redressal of grievances and accomplishing grievances free government.

Grievance Complex

  • Gauge the complexity of public grievances before assessing the possibilities of redress and prevention.

  • Stake holders caught in varied grievances situations include law makers, administrators & citizens as bearers of right.

  • Grievances relate to appointment, work conditions, wages, allowances, service conditions, termination of service etc.

  • Grievances related to education are related to fee refund, transfer certificates, degrees, exams, results, scholarships, research funds, teacher availability etc.

  • Public grievances include situations like

  • Disputes over benefits or entitlements

  • Interpretation of rules

  • Complaints against misuse of power

  • Wrong decisions

  • Favoritism & discrimination

  • Corruption or specific acts of omission

Grievances of groups formed by association based on shared circumstances are quite diverse such as in case of displaced people, forest dwellers, disabled, job seekers, students, teachers, government employees, handloom weavers, hawkers, manual scavengers, tax payers etc.

Evolution of Mechanism

  • Administrative reforms to reduce public grievances became a significant element by mid-sixties.

  • Idea to set up public grievance redressal mechanisms gained momentum in 1987 and adoption of Action Plan for responsive and citizen centric administration.

Put three mechanisms in place. The mechanisms include

  • Citizen charters, information and facilitation counters and public grievances redressal machinery for all departments.

  • Initial enthusiasm in the initial phase with numerous directives flowing from DARPG.

  • Public grievances redressal mechanism was also central to the sevottam model & important for results framework document.

Two significant milestones in the evolution of grievances redressal mechanism in India were

  1. Constitution of public grievance cell in ministries/departments

  2. Set up of DPG to monitor redressal of grievances in select organization with large public interface.

  • Adoption of a web based CPGRAMS

  • Monitor and analyze grievances

  • Review of the redressal mechanisms remained largely ineffective in the absence of adequate authority, human resource support or poor commitment of officers

  • CPGRAMS remained underutilized because lack of access to technology, low level of public trust and lack of awareness

Amazing Scenario

📝 The utilisation of CPGRAMS has grown due to

Rapid spread of IT & internet with increasing awareness

Strengthen technology interface - PRAGATI (Pro-Active Governance and Timely Implementation) platform and social media

PMO has also become an important nodal agency for receiving grievances.

Overall disposal rate has been close to 97%.

Issue based analysis & analysis based on time taken can be meaningful. Do reclassification to handle grievances.

Departments/ministries should go through grievances expeditiously and return them back in a period of five days if they did not belong to them.

Redressal Versus Disposal (Process)

Federal Dynamics

  • UP, Maharashtra, and Delhi being the leading states for CPGRAMS grievances

  • CPGRAMS plays the facilitator role for the public.

  • The performance of states on portal can be left to them but the facilitation responsibility of the centre cannot be shed when a public grievance has been registered and there is a jurisdictional conflict involved.

Private Provision of Public Service

  • Influence of both state and private players

  • Autonomy has its challenges regarding the accountability of regulatory agencies.

  • Necessitates public accountability of these institutions by making them transparent to exercise responsibility.

  • Making process and logic of decisions open to public to reduce grievances

Accountability Issues

  • Complex issues and overlapping jurisdictions, necessitating disentanglement and clarity over rules, regulations, processes, jurisdiction sand appropriate mechanisms for redress.

  • Mechanisms for coordinated responses is desirable, since many ministries are involved in redressing of grievances.

  • Ease of access may increase with decentralization of the mechanism.

  • Centralized online mechanism - reduce plight of citizen, while facilitating transparency and enabling monitoring.

  • Effectiveness of online mechanism is still conditioned on

    • Access to technology and ability to read and write

    • Built accountability mechanisms

    • Use of lok adalats, jan sunwais, social audit, mobile apps etc. to ensure inclusion of those who do not haves access to CPGRAMS.

Public Grievances as Opportunity

  • The awareness of grievances is the first condition

  • Expression rather than repression of voice to win public trust

  • Undertaking systematic analysis of grievances and suggestions or even queries

  • Take note of grievances received through informal channels of communications which can also help arrive at better state of governance.

Reading the Absence of Grievances

  • One should not read too much into the absence of grievances, as this may be on account of poverty of mechanisms for expression or lack of public faith

  • Grievances may turn underground for fear & stay invisible for long

Private Service Providers: Redressal Mechanism

  • Devise appropriate mechanisms for the redressal of citizen’s grievances.

  • Debatable digitization of many grievances redressal mechanisms and introduction of new ones

  • Gap in an effective regulatory mechanism for grievances against private sector providers

  • Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) in being empowered to become an individual public grievance redressal platform but lacks power. Three-stage grievance redress mechanism for telecom sector-resolution by Telecom Providers, resolution by Consumer Grievances Redressal Forum (CGFR) and determination by Telecom Ombudsman. Escalate either to Telecom Disputes Settlement and Appellate Tribunal and to Department of Telecommunications, CPGRAMS

  • Efficient and effective grievance redress act as a building block for customer trust.

  • Enable access to goods and services & ignore post-sale customer engagement and grievance redressal

Challenges Faced by an Indian Customer Are

  • Complainants are unaware of available platforms with ICT

  • Access to the appropriate redressal platform is not known

  • Resolution rate is very less.

  • Incentivize filling consumer application.

  • 👌 Government led by ‘ART for governance’ (Accountability, Responsibility and Transparency) has digitized the existing public grievance system.

  • New platforms such as Railway ministry’s Nivaran, Ministry of Petroleum, Oil and Natural Gas’s e-Seva & PRAGATI

  • One of the pending legislation capable to address this is ’The Right of Citizens for Time Bound Delivery of Goods and Services and redressal of their Grievances Bill (or Lokpal Bill) pending since 2011.

  • Aim to introduce Delivery of Services and Grievances Redressal scheme - be effective as lokpal bill, but address few issues.

  • Ombudsman present in banking, electricity and insurance sectors, but yet to be implemented in other economic sectors.

  • Department of Consumer Affairs (DoCA), Grahak Suvidha Kendras (suspended initiative by government-GSK) or consumer care centres. 11 % complaints from financial sector under CUTS international

  • Consumers were also able to avail other services like

  • information on consumer rights

  • guidance and assistance on consumer complaints

  • one on one advice and assistance

  • Such alternate models should be encouraged to be taken up by Voluntary Consumer Organization to reduce burden of Dispute Redressal Agencies established under Consumer Protection ACT (COPRA) 👌

  • National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission Website - 82.26 % of cases have been disposed off successfully in the prescribed time limit given in COPRA. The recent Consumer Bill to replace the COPRA, provides for establishing a Central Protection Authority (CCPA) for faster grievance redressal for consumers.

  • Effect of CCPA on the pendency of existing cases will be tested with better centre-state coordination for speedy redressal for consumer grievances & test multi-redressal mechanism operating in a single sector.

  • E-Commerce registered steep rise in consumer complaints.

  • Dedicated and empowered sectorial regulators, independent ombudsman, GSKs better inter-governmental and inter-ministerial coordination to resolve rising consumer redressal issues.

First phase of RTIS (Real Time Train Information System) will cover 27000 electric trains, expected to be completed by December 2018.

The trial was done on Mumbai Rajdhani train, Guwahati-New Delhi Train and four more trains.

- Published/Last Modified on: February 27, 2018


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