Yojana January 2019 Innovation Part- 1 (Download PDF)

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Key Topics included in this Article: Internet of things, Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana, Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana, Atal Pension Yojana, Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana, Delhi Metro Technology, National Agriculture Market, Common Service center, IMPRINT India, Atal Innovation Mission, Structural Model Of Crew Modules

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Innovation: Yojana January 2019 (In English)

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Yojana January 2019: Innovation

  • Forthcoming Issue: Infrastructure
  • 👌 Vice President of India, Shri M. Venkaiah Naidu released 2 books – ’ The Republican Ethic’ & ‘Loktantra Ke Swar’: Selected Speeches of President Ram Nath Kovind (July 2017 – July 2018), brought out by Publications Division, at a function in Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi on December 8,2018.
  • Innovation has been at heart of all progress of mankind.
  • Agriculture, space science, bio – technology, health care, education etc. – every sector has benefitted by innovation.
  • Lead in innovations has been taken in field of science & technology. Many of these innovations are deeply connected w/lives of common man. Innovations in health, like discovery of DNA profiling, stem, cell research, organ donations, heart transplants etc. have actually been life saving.
  • Green Revolution was an innovation that helped convert India into a food sufficient nation from a food scarce nation which had to depend on supplies from abroad to feet its hungry population during initial years after gaining independence.
  • Space science is another area which has seen a number of innovations. Innovations in satellites & launch vehicles have further boosted India’s efforts to earn its rightful place in comity of nations.
  • 👌 Specific innovative programmes like Atal Innovation Mission & innovations in public system like BHIM App, e – NAM etc have also contributed to innovative spirit in India. Metro Rail is one of most innovative modern transport systems & has made a huge difference to public transport system.
  • There is no doubt innovations have made a difference to society from times immemorial. But they should not be restricted to individual efforts scientists & researchers alone.

Scientific Innovations in the Service of Society

  • Innovation mostly indicates advancements
  • This is because, at times advancement is more about progression for existing technology. Say in case of developments being witnessed over years in domain of computers: a 32 – bit microprocessor introduced in 1985, Intel 80386, which was known as 386 was replaced by a 486 microprocessor after a few years, which was a higher performance unit.
  • Quantum computing is at an experimental stage & it is expected that in a few years this technology could become a reality bringing in major disruption in IT (Information Technology) sector in particular & ICT (Information & Communication Technology) sector.
  • Over years, the world has witnessed various innovations happening in field of science & significant difference in lives of common man. Such innovations have been happening in various fields of science from Physics to Biology.
  • Some of innovations which have been predicated to change human lifestyle in near future, are presently at various of their technology development life cycles.
  • Around year 1948 invention of transistor, a device w/potential to have numerous applications in radio technology by replacing the vacuum tube, took place. This electronic component demonstrated its capability to have instantaneous action. This was possible because there was no workup delay that used to take place in vacuum tube, since no heat was getting developed.
  • The transistor is a resistor or semi – conductor device which helps amplify electoral signal as they get transferred thru it. Presences of transistor enables all kinds of binary logic operations & has brought a revolution to field of electronic & computing.

Historical Perspective:

  • Manifestation of various technological developments have resulted in various industrial revolutions since seventeenth and eighteenth century onwards. Beginning of industrial revolution had British industry at center. Slowly, industrialization spread from Britain to other European countries like Belgium, France & Germany, & then to the United States. By mid –nineteenth century, industrial progress had happened mainly in Western Europe & North & Northeast of the United States.
  • In Asia, countries like Japan, & in later part of century, South Korea contributed much towards the industrial revolution. However, during last few decades, one country that has shown remarkable progress towards industrialization is China. Countries like Israel & India are known to have made some contributions too.
  • Main features of these industrial revolutions are as follows:
  1. First industrial Revolution: 1760 – 1840. it was a period which witnessed emergence of steam engine, textile industry & mechanical engineering.
  2. Second industrial Revolution: 1870 – 1914. The revolution was about emergence of railways & steel industry.
  3. Third industrial Revolution: 1969 – 2000. Electric engine, heavy chemicals, automobiles & consumer durables made their presence felt during this period.
  4. Fourth industrial Revolution: digital revolution, since 2000 or a few decades prior.

Innovation in Various Sectors:

  • Biology, Biotechnology, Pharmacy & Medicine are areas, which have witnessed various important innovations over years.
  • Invention of Penicillin during 1928 by Scottish scientist Alexander Fleming could be considered as beginning of modern era of medicine.
  • Almost seven decades later during 2001, secret behind the complete sequence of all three billion base pairs in the human genome was discovered. Discovery of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) has totally revolutionized field of biology.
  • Research on stem cell is also an important innovation. Such cells have unique ability to develop into specialized cell types in body which could be used to replace cells & tissues that have been damaged or lost due to disease.
  • In the power sector, from nuclear power to solar power to space based solar power to biofuels, various clean options have been made available. A major innovation w/regard to wind turbines is getting discussed where a start – up is working on an environmentally friendly aerogenerator which needs no blades. This is expected to be a more cost-effective option. Another interesting technology/method for energy generation is by using nuclear fusion reactors.
  • A major innovation could happen when current nuclear fusion reactors where hydrogen isotopes tritium & deuterium are used as fuel would be replaced by other technology. If helium – 3 & deuterium could be used as fuels, then a major revolution in energy sector is expected.

Innovation in modern Technology:

  • For many years one of best approaches to industrial production was considered as CNC (Computer Numerical Control) machine.
Image of Innovation in modern technology

Image of Innovation in Modern Technology

Image of Innovation in modern technology

  • w/developments taking place in additive manufacturing (AM) sector it is expected that a major change is at the doorstep of global manufacturing processes. This technology which is commonly known as 3D printing is a mechanism of direct digital manufacturing.

Internet of Things:

This is single most technology which has helped to change face of world w/in a few years. This one innovation has actually led to various other innovations. Internet could be breed as one technology which connected world & has changed various practices of human survival from education to healthcare to nature of doing business including financial transactions.

  • Idea of using internet differently & by using diverse effects (normally “thing” or “object are viewed as any possible items in the real world that could join the communication chain”) is expected to upswing to model of Internet of Things (Io T).
  • Generally, IoT is considered to be simply a means of connecting different sensors to a ne2rk. It is important to look at IoT over a boarder canvass of numerous IT related & futuristic IT technologies.
  • Technologies like Fog computing, Distributed computing, Cloud computing, Big Data & Block – chain are expected to impact future of Io T.
  • Artificial Intelligence (AI) is presently found making a lot of impact on developmental cycle in various disciplines.

Image of Artificial Intelligence

Image of Artificial Intelligence

Image of Artificial Intelligence

  • AI could bring in various advantages in very many fields associated w/human growth & progress. Robotics is one area, which is associated both directly & indirectly w/AI & has already made many inroads in various human activities over years. Broadly, it could be argued that AI & Internet 2.0 could decide on future of world.
  • Today, communication, navigational, remote sensing (earth observational), weather & scientific satellite actually almost fully control humans lives. cell phones (mobile phones) were originally developed as a unit for remote wireless communication.
  • It is important to appreciate the fact that despite being developed for a specific purpose, some technologies have provided innovation for altogether different purpose. For example, cell phones (mobile phones) were originally developed as a unit for remote wireless communication. Since then, however, phones have been implanted w/ GPS chips that provide information about the device’s geographic position.
  • Largely, technology could be said to have evolved as a response to various requirements of society & it is expected that S & T innovations happening in future too would help human to live more peacefully & happily.

Capitalizing on Technology for Farmer’s Welfare

  • Farming is both a way of life & means to livelihood for nearly 60 per cent of our population. , a majority & youth.
  • Basic difficulties of farmers can be overcome only if integrated attention is given to pricing, procurement & public distribution. Compounding the difficulties of today, farmers the facing serious problem from climate change. Most unfavourable impact of climate change will be high temperature, wide variation in precipitation & rise in sea level. While looking at problems of farmers there should be equal attention to families living & cultivating in following g ecosystems. Arid zone, sem – arid farming areas, irrigated areas, groundwater farming & plantation crops in hilly areas.
  • GoI has already changed on recommendation of NCF, the name of Agriculture Ministry to Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers’ Welfare.
  • Progress made by our farmers in improving production & productivity is by fact that wheat production in India has gone up from 7 million tonnes in 1947 to 100 millions tonnes in 2018.
  • New scientific innovations, farmer friendly economic policies & farmer’s own enthusiasm to take to new technologies are all important for achieving desired goal of a quantum jump in production.
  • 👌 As early as in 1962, Rachel Carson in her classic book titled Silent Spring pointed out that pesticides including DDT can result in long – term harm because of their long residual toxicity.
  • National Commission on Farmers (NCF) made following goals for ensuring sustainable agriculture & food security:
  1. To improve economic viability of farming.
  2. To mainstream human & gender dimension in all farm policies.
  3. To complete unfinished agenda in l& reforms.
  4. To develop & introduce a social security system.
  5. To protect & improve l&, water, biodiversity.
  6. To foster community – centered food, water & energy security systems in rural India.
  7. To introduce measures which can help to attract & retain youth in farming.
  8. To strengthen biosecurity of crops, farm animals, fish & forest trees safeguarding.
  9. To restructure agricultural curriculum & Pedagogic methodologies for enabling every farm & home science graduate.
  10. To make India a global outsourcing hub in production & Information & communication Technology.

The NCF report was submitted in 2006. Some of them are:

  • Designating the Ministry of Agriculture as Ministry of Agriculture & Farmer’s Welfare.
  • Issues of Soil Health Cards (SHC) to all farmers to promote the adoption of balanced nutrition.
  • Allocation of both budgetary & non – budgetary resources for promoting micro – irrigation thru the Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMSKY) .
  • Conservation & sustainable use of indigenous breeds of cattle thru a Rashtriya Gokul Mission.
  • Creation of Gramin Agriculture Markets (GrAMs) will provide scope for direct sales to consumers in both retail & bulk form.
  • 👌 Introduction of Agricultural Produce & Livestock Marketing Act, 2017 & Agricultural Produce & Livestock Contract Farming Services Act, 2018 supported by electronic Negotiable Warehouse Receipt (eNWR) system.
  • Determination of Minimum Support Price (MSP) based on Recommendation of the NCF.
  • Welfare programs including Public Distribution System (PDS).
  • Increase in income of farmers thru activities like apiculture, bamboo production, agro – forestry & agro – processing for generating additional jobs.
  • MSP of the notified crops would be minimum of 150 % of the cost of production, it is noteworthy that it ranges from 150 to even up to 200%.

Anticipatory Research in Climate Change:

  • Impact of mangroves has been observed by local community on several occasions including the recent Gaja in Tamilnadu.
  • There are adequate opportunities for anticipatory research involving new technologies.

Space Programmes: Spin offs for Humanity

  • India has launched its largest & heaviest communication satellite into orbit.
  • 👌 GSAT 11 will fulfill yet another goal of ISRO’s founding father Dr Vikram Sarabhai to use high technology for benefit of common man.
  • India has emerged as one among six nations i. e. USA, Russia, Europe, China & Japan.
  • Indian launch vehicles like PSLV, GSLV have proven track record & cost effectiveness so that even developed countries are approaching ISRO for launching their satellites.
  • Space is going to be next frontier for humans exploration & presence of humans in outer space & plants is going to be next challenge.
  • Formal approval was given by prime minister thru his 2018 Independence Day declaration that India will be having its own human space flight in 2022.
  • Important developments related human space flight are the Crew module, life support system, Crew escape system & improvement in the overall reliability of launch vehicle.

Reliable Vehicles:

  • PSLV & GSLV have emerged as reliable satellite launch vehicles globally. Space Shuttle had estimated reliability level of 99 per cent, still NASA took risk of sending astronauts in that It is said that they encountered 2 failures out of its 136 launches.
  • At present the only launcher available for free world for human space flight is Russian Soyuz rocket.
  • GSLV MKIII recently developed by ISRO.
  • Designs margins have to be enhanced wherever required.
  • After completing the orbital mission, breaking orbit, sending module in precise trajectory in guided manner & managing re – entry heating load using appropriate ablatives & material.

Recovery System:

  • ISRO has demonstrated a crew recovery experiment using which astronauts will be ejected from launch system & brought back to earth in case of a mission abort.
  • India has done well in making use of earth observation satellites, IRS.
  • Satellite images can strengthen security system & for continuous monitoring of sensitive regions high resolution imaging from geo stationary platform will have to be developed.
  • But there is no proven technique for advanced warning of earthquakes.

Digital Connectivity:

  • Today’s knowledge society is totally dependent on digital connectivity.
  • Recent launch GSAT11 is a clear example of how space is supporting needs of country in this area of high speed digital connectivity.
  • Today, space based services are efficient but expensive. If schemes are developed to recover & reuse launch hardware considerable saving in cost can be achieved.
  • Space research always has been fascinating & India has not lagged behind. Future challenges related to space exploration, space travel, tourism application programmes based on space assets spin off technology benefits etc are going to provide lot of opportunity to new generation.

- Published/Last Modified on: January 31, 2019

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