Yojana January 2020 Part 1 (Download PDF)

Doorsteptutor material for CLAT is prepared by world's top subject experts: fully solved questions with step-by-step explanation- practice your way to success.

Download PDF of This Page (Size: 182.74 K)

Times to Act: W/time running out to contain ill-effects on environment, recently held Conference of Parties under United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC COP 25) in Madrid, Spain was seen as a window of opportunity.

India at UNFCC COP 25

  • Union Minister for Environment Forest & Climate Change (MoEF&CC), Information & Broadcasting & Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises delivered India’s Statement at the 25th session of conference of Parties under UN framework convention of Climate Change (UNFCCC COP 25), in Madrid Spain on 10 December, 2019.
  • India has reduced emission intensity of GDP by 21 on track to achieve goal of 35 % emissions reduction as promised Paris. Prime Minister Modi announced. 175 Giga Watts targets for renewable under Paris Agreement. We have already achieved 83 Giga Watts. Prime Minister has subsequently increased target to 450 Giga watts at recent UN Climate Action Summit. We are simultaneously progressing on solar, biomass & wind energy.
  • A commercial flight was operated on 100 percent bio fuel & we are targeting blending of 20 % ethanol in petrol by 2030. Leapfrogged from Bharat Standard IV to Bharat Standard VI for vehicle emission norms & from 1 April, 2020, vehicles will be BS VI compliant.
  • 360 million LED bulbs have been fitted in homes, and 10 conventional streetlights have been replaced w/LED lights. There is also a strong push for use of e-vehicles by introducing multiple policy interventions & incentives. We have provided 80 million LPG gas connections replacing conventional firewood cooking stoves.
  • Creation of additional carbon sinks of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of carbon equivalent thru increasing green cover.
  • special projects like urban forests, school nursery, agro forestry, water & fodder augmentation in forest aera.
  • India has taken up target for restoration of 26 million of degraded land by 2030 during 14th COP of UN Convention to Combat Desertification in Delhi.
  • Internationally, India launched Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure which is a partnership to support countries thru. Knowledge exchange and provide technical support on developing disaster and climate resilient infrastructure.

Ministers underlined that COP 25 should achieve outcomes as follows:

  • To conclude negotiations related to article 6 of Paris Agreement;
  • To mandate a 2-year Work Programme under SBI to assess the pre-2020 progress and gaps, w/a view to making necessary arrangements to fill those gaps;
  • To urge developed country Parties to fulfill their commitments on providing finance, technology development and transfer and capacity-building support to developing countries;
  • To interpret & implement provisions of Paris Agreement in a holistic & faithful manner.

Kayakalp: Transforming Public Health Facilities

  • Kayakalp initiative of Ministry of Health & Family Welfare began in 2015 w/aim of improving infrastructure upkeep, hygiene & sanitation, & sanitation, & infection control practices in Central Government institutions & public health facilities in all States & UTs.
  • Mahatma Gandhi & Sanitation
  • ‘Swachh Bharat Abhiyan’ or ‘Clean India Mission’ mission aimed to eradicate open Defecation by 2 October, 2019.150th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi, by constructing 9 cr. toilets in rural India at a projected cost of Rs. 196-lakh cr. , spanning 4,041 statutory cities & towns. Drive is categorised in two submissions, Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Urban) that-operates under Ministry of Housing and Urban Aflairs & Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Rural) that Talls & operates under Ministry of Jal Shakti (erstwhile Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation).
  • Kayakalp initiative scheme has resulted in significant improvement in level of cleanliness, hygiene, and infection- control practices at public healthcare facilities & has inculcated a culture of ongoing assessment and peer review to promote hygiene, cleanliness, & sanitation.
  • Kayakalp has not only been able to facelift public health, facilities but has made significant contribution towards moulding behavioral practices of public. This paradigm shift is well reflected number of “satisfied” patients as reported thru “Mera Aspataal”, an ICT- based patient feedback system.
  • Kayakalp made a modest beginning in its first year assessing only District Hospitals (DH). Subsequently, w/h span three years, all the Sub District Hospitals, Community Health Centres, and Primary Health Centre (Rural and Urban) have also been brought under its ambit.
  • In current year, for holistic & comprehensive improvement across health sector, Kayakalp scheme has been extended to private sector health facilities. Quality Council of India (QCT thru its constituent National Accreditation Board for Hospitals & Healthcare Providers (NABH) conducted Kayakalp assessment in private hospitals. The assessments were conducted as per the Kayakalp guidelines established by MOHFW encompassing parameters viz. hospital/facility upkeep. sanitation & hygiene, waste management, infection control, hospital support services, & hygiene promotion.
  • MOHFW has also used platforms of Village Health Sanitation Nutrition Committees (VHSNCS) under National Health Mission & Mahila Arogya Samitis (MAS) under National Urban Health Mission (NUHM) to promote sanitation in vulnerable urban communities.
  • In 2019, country’s three best PHCS under Kayakalp
  • from Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, and Karnataka were also felicitated by Ministry of Jal Shakti.

Sustainable Sanitation in the Cities

Urban Sanitation in India

Census (2011) revealed that 12.6 % of households in Urban India were practising Open Defecation (OD). While this was definitely lower than extent of OD (68%) in rural India, it was nonetheless adversely impacting health of urban citizens & overall environment.

Cost of Poor Sanitation

Better sanitation leads to reduction in occurrences of low birth weight in babies, spontaneous abortions, & occurrences of birth defects.

Journey to Sustainable Urban Sanitation

On 2 October, 2019 Urban India became Open Defecation Free (ODF) a fitting tribute to Mahatma Gandhi on his 150th birth anniversary.

Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs (MoHUA) has been implementing various Missions of Government of India, viz. Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban), AMRUT, Smart Cities Mission, NERUDP all of which address issue of urban sanitation. Over last five years, urban sanitation initiatives of Government have achieved impressive success (Figure), w/more than 99 % of its cities & 35 states/UTs having become ODF (Under Swachh Bharat Mission- Urban).

MoHUA has also partnered w/Google to upload & make available on Google maps all public & community toilets in cities, (Figure 2) so that citizens & visitors are able to easily locate these facilities in their vicinity.

A Graded Approach to Scaling Up & Sustaining Urban Sanitation.

Under AMRUT Mission too, significant progress has been made in faecal sludge management coverage w/637 projects already completed in Sewerage & Septage Management.

Swachh Survekshan- A Tool for Mission Monitoring & Governance

Swachh Survekshan (SS) is an innovative survey conducted by MoHUA under Swachh Bharat Mission- Urban, to rank cities on various sanitation & cleanliness parameters (Figure 5).

In its first round in 2016, SS was conducted among 73 cities w/population of 10 lakh & above, & State/UT capitals of India. In 2017, survey was conducted among 434 cities, Swachh Survekshan 2018 covered 4203 ULBs: Indore was adjudged cleanest city in country. This survey, first ever Pan-India Sanitation Survey impacting around 40 crore people, was probably largest such survey in world. Swachh Survekshan 2019 covered 4237 cities.

SS 2019 was unique as service level assessment was completely online & paperless.

For Swachh Survekshan 2020, MoHUA has introduced concept of ‘continuous Survekshan’ to ensure that Mission outcomes are sustained thru a system of continuous monitoring & verification.

Addressing challenge of Manual scavenging & Hazardous Entry

MoHUA has been constancy endeavouring to ensure that hazardous cleaning of sewers & septic tanks is completely eliminated, & even when manual entry is & unavoidable, to ensure that it be done only w/proper safety precautions.

MoHUA has further strengthened its drive towards sustainable sanitation by mandating setting up of emergency Response Sanitation Unit (ERSU) in major cities, which represents an innovative approach to institutionalising safety practices & mitigating measures to counter manual scavenging & hazardous cleaning practices, while systematising human entry in to sewer/septic tanks in a professional, well-trained, motivated, & appropriately equipped manner.

MoHUA’s initiatives in urban sanitation have been complemented significantly thru a variety of enablers, viz.

Leveraging technology & ‘smart’ solutions to widen citizen outreach (e. g. Google mapping of public toilets, Swachhata app as a Citizens’ grievance redressal system on all aspects of sanitation);

Robust online MIS & portal for real time data capture;

Swachh Manch for large scale citizen engagement;

Behaviour change initiatives (e. g. , engagement of celebrities as ambassadors, mass media audio/video campaigns Swachhata selfie, on-ground citizen activation, etc. );

Continuous capacity building of ULBs thru dissemination of technical advisories, providing need- based handholding support, classroom- & field visit- based workshops, etc.

- Published/Last Modified on: February 7, 2020


Developed by: