Yojana January 2020 Part 3

⪻ On New Articles ⪼

Role of Community Radio in Disaster Mgmt. & Climate-change Communication: Community radio specialises in providing local information to local people. Thus, it can play an important role in disaster risk reduction, especially in pre-disaster preparedness and mitigation thru. Awareness raising that targets diff. community groups. Ministry of Information & Broadcasting GOI. of is committed to develop a vibrant Community Radio movement thru. Participation, involvement & ownership of local community for greater information dissemination & further empowerment of people.

Community Radio in India

At present, 276 functional Community Radio Stations are operating in India. Out of these 276 stations, 129 are run by educational institutions, 132 by community-based organizations & 15 by Krishi Vigyan Kendra/State Agriculture Institutions.

Community radios are also prominently being used in Nepal, Bangladesh, & Philippines for rural development. They are equally popular in Canada, America, Australia, & South Airica.

Community Radio is useful in:

Speaking to communities in local languages using terms & phrases that are easily and locally understood;

Providing two-way interactive social learning thru. Listening clubs, call-in shows, & other forms of exchange;

Communicating local knowledge, needs, & demands beyond community to inform policy, research, & other communities;

Providing only media available to communities that have little or access to other methods of conveying information & knowledge;

Bringing together from frequently disconnected stakeholder groups such as livelihoods, community leaders, organizations & governance.


  • Community radio can play a crucial role in disaster management via assisting community in three syages:


  • In Pre-Disaster stage, community radio stations can provide guidance regarding its preparedness. Information regarding gathering locations & safely shelters can be disseminated.

During Disaster

  • At time of a disaster, most forms of communication are disrupted barring radio signals.
  • Two prime advantages of community radio are that they focus to affected communities & content is delivered in local language. This can help is disseminating rescue operation information by location-specific stations. Also since information is in local language/dialect it helps avoid any miscommunication.

Post Disaster

  • Having a medium of communication in their own language or dialect can help in strengthening morale of community.
  • Community radio can be an important component of rescue relief & rehabilitation efforts.

Mitigation of carbon Footprint

  • India has committed at Paris Climate Change Agreement to reduce its emissions by 33 - 35 % by 2030, which necessitates immediate implementation of carbon capture w/afforestation of degraded landscapes w/native species, regulations of land use land cover (LULC) changes and de-carbonisation thru large-scale implementation of renewable & sustainable energy alternatives. This article studies in-depth on issue taking a case of ecologically-sensitive Western Ghats region.
  • Anthropogenic activities such as burning fossil fuel, power generation. Agriculture, Industry, polluting water bodies, & urban activities are responsible for increasing GHG footprint of which 72 % constitute CO.
  • Land use land cover (LULC) dynamics leading to deforestation & land degradation is prime driver of global warming due to loss of carbon sequestration potential as well as emissions Western Ghats (WG) , Fig. 1 are one among 36 global biodiversity & hotspots forests in this sequestering atmospheric carbon, which aid in moderating global climate.
  • It is considered as a water tower of India due to numerous streams originating & draining millions of hectares, rivers of WG ensure water & food security of 245 + million people in peninsular Indian States.
  • Spatiotemporal LU analyses highlights loss of forest cover due to anthropogenic pressure. Region had 16.21 % evergreen forest cover in 1985, which is reduced to 11.3 % in 2018. It has 17.92 % , 37.53 % , 4.88 % a under plantations, agriculture, mining & built-up, respectively. Increase in monoculture plantations such as acacia, eucalyptus, teak & rubber, developmental projects, & agriculture expansions are major drivers of LU changes.
  • Evergreen forest cover will only be 10 % of the WG by 2031, which would threaten sustenance of water & other natural resources, affecting food security and livelihood of people in peninsular India.
  • Total incremental carbon excluding carbon loss thru productivity is accounted to be 37507.3Gg. likely changes in carbon sequestration potential in WG is estimated considering simulated LU՚s (a) conservation scenario & (ii) business-as-usual scenario. Business-as usual-scenario.

Carbon Footprint

  • Carbon footprint is contributed by emissions from energy sector (68 %) , agriculture (19.6 %) , industrial processes (6 %) , LU change (3.8 %) & forestry (1.9 %) , respectively in India w/CO, emissions of about 3.1MGg (2017) & per capita CO, emissions of 2.56 metric tonnes. Carbon emissions from major metropolitan cities of India is about 1.3MGg contributed by major cities such as Delhi (38633.20Gg) Greater Mumbai (22783.08 Gel Chennai (22090.55Gg) , Bengaluru (19796.6Gg) , Kolkata (14812.1Gg) , Hyderabad (13734.59Gg & Ahmedabad (6580.4Gg) from energy, transportation, industrial sector, Agriculture, livestock management & waste sectors per year.
  • de-carbonisation (thru large- scale implementation of renewable & sustainable energy alternatives) thru stringent norms towards (!) protection of ecologically fragile regions, (! !) disincentives for continued higher emissions based on ‘polluter pays’ principle, (iii) adoption of cluster-based decentralised developmental approaches, & (iv) incentives for reduced emission.

Emerging Civil Society Initiatives in Agriculture

Innovations in Agriculture

  • Experiences of both developed & developing countries that incremental innovations by users of technology viz. , factory ″ workers & employees play pivotal role in improving technology & productivity.

Shifting Consumption Patterns

  • As priority shifts from food security to nutrition security, Focus of policy makers is moving towards micro-nutrient dense foods like minor millets & pulses, often called ‘orphan crops’ . Govt had declared 2018 as her National Year of Millets for promoting its cultivation and consumption. It re-designated coarse cereals like sorghum, pearl millet, finger millet, and minor millets as nutri cereals in 2018. All this is in ‘Decade of Action on Nutrition’ he (2016 - 25) as per United Nations under SDGs.

Managing Electronic Waste

  • “Electronics Waste” or “e-waste” that consists of obsolete electronic devices. Solid waste management, which is already a critical task in India, is becoming more complicated by invasion of e-waste, particularly computer waste.
  • Personal computers (PCs) contain certain components, which are highly toxic, such as chlorinated & brominated substances, toxic gases, toxic metals, biologically active materials, acids, plastics & plastic additives, posing environmental & health challenges.
  • Rapid economic growth, coupled w/urbanisation & a growing demand for consumer goods, has increased both production & consumption of electronics & electrical equipments.
  • Most of components in c-devices contain lead, cadmium, mercury, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) , brominated flame retardants՚ so (BFRs) . chromium, beryllium etc,
  • These e-wastes, when improperly disposed (incinerated/land filled instead of recycling) w/domestic waste, w/o any controls, can contaminate soil, water, & air. In general.

Electronic goods/gadgets are classified under three major heads:

  • White goods: Household appliances;
  • Brown goods: TVs, camcorders, cameras; &
  • Grey goods: Computers, printers, fax machines, scanners etc.

Waste from white & brown goods is less toxic when compared to grey goods.

  • Collection centres may only ship wastes to dismantlers & recyclers who have authorisation for handling, processing, refurbishment, & recycling meeting environmentally sound management guidelines.
  • Apart from reducing greenhouse gas emissions, which contribute to global warming, recycling also reduces air & water pollution associated w/making new products raw materials.

Salient features of E-waste

(Management) Amendment Rules, 2018

  • E-waste collection targets under EPR have been revised & applicable since 1 October, 2017. Phase-wise collection targets for e-waste in weight shall be 10 % of quantity of waste generation as indicated in EPR Plan during 2017 - 18, w/a 10 % increase every year until 2023. After 2023 onwards, target is made70 % of quantity of waste generation as indicated in the EPR Plan.
  • Separate e-waste collection targets have been drafted for new producers, i.e.. those producers whose number of years of sales operation is less than average lives of their products. Average lives of products will be as per guidelines issued by CPCB from time to time.
  • Producer Responsibility Organisations (PROs) shall apply to Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) for registration to undertake activities prescribed in Rules.
  • Under Reduction of Hazardous Substances (ROHS) provisions, cost for sampling & testing shall be borne by govt for conducting RoHS test. If product does not comply w/ (RoHS) provisions, then cost of test will be borne by Producers.

Challenges Ahead

  • Only 1.5 per cent of e-waste generated in India gets recycled. Lack of awareness about e-waste & its recycling as well as role of unorganised sector are added challenges to problem.

Development & Environment Maintaining Fine Balance

  • Installed capacity of renewable energy in country recorded 83.4GW as on 31 October, 2019 while wind energy accounts for 37GW & Solar 31.7GW. Apart From increasing share in green energy & adopting latest technologies in fossil Fuel-based plants, a host of measures are being undertaken to reduce India՚s carbon footprint; while coal & other Fossil Fuels will continue to play a major role in India՚s energy mix in decades to come, it is committed to tackling climate change.
  • Govt has launched National Clean Air Programme (NCAP) as a long-term, time bound. National level strategy to achieve 20 to 30 per cent reduction in PM10 and PM2.5 concentration by 2024. Overall objective of NCAP is comprehensive mitigation actions for prevention, control, & abatement of air pollution besides augmenting air quality monitoring network across country & strengthening awareness & capacity building activities.
  • The NCAP will be a mid terms, five-year action plan w/2019 as first year. Approach for NCAP includes collaborative, multi-scale, & cross-sectoral coordination b/w relevant central ministries, state govt & local bodies.
  • India announced its new climate plan, also known as Intended Nationally Determined Contribution, (INDC) in 2015. India՚s INDC targets installing 175 GW of renewable energy capacity by 2022 (out of this, 100 GW is allocated to solar & 60 GW to wind) by increasing its share of non-fossil based energy from 30 per cent to about 40 per cent by 2030. It has committed to reduce its emissions intensity per unit GDP by 33 to 35 per cent by 2030 & create an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of CO, thru additional tree cover.

Plastic Waste in Construction & Road Making

  • GoI is encouraging waste plastic usage for roads & highway construction, especially on National Highways w/I 50 km periphery of urban areas that have a population of 5 lakh or more. Ministry of Road Transport & Highways has mobilised nearly 26 thousand people across waste country for spreading awareness on plastic waste mgmt. Over 61 thousand hours of Shramdaan is initiated to collect plastic waste.
  • Initiatives are being taken to use plastic waste out of landfills in building roads. Post-consumer Recycled garbage is used in creating new polymer modified asphalt roads.
  • National Rural Roads Development Agency, Ministry of Rural Development, Govt of India, has issued guidelines for use of plastic waste in rural roads construction.

Following types of waste plastics can be used in construction of rural roads:

  • Films (Carry, Bags, Cups) thickness up to 60 micron (PE, PP, & PS) ;
  • Hard foams (PS) , any thickness;
  • Soft foams (PE and PP) , any thickness; &
  • Laminated plastics w/thickness up to 60 micron (aluminium coated also) packing materials used for biscuits, chocolates, etc.
  • Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sheets or Flux sheets should not be used in any case.
  • Central Road Research Institute (CRRI) specified that shredded waste plastic should pass thru 3 mm sieve, one expert has suggested it to pass thru 4.75 mm sieve & retained on 1 mm. This also indicates indirectly that size of shredded bitumen should normally be 2 - 3 mm for better spread & coating aggregate.

Method Of Road laying

  • CRRI has recommended that percentage of shredded waste plastic will be 8 % as optimum plastic content for blending bitumen in construction of plastic roads.

Major Finding

  • Use of plastic along w/bitumen in construction of roads not only increases its life & smoothness but also makes it economically sound & environment friendly. Plastic wastes used as modifier of bitumen improve some of properties of bitumen. Such roads were not subjected to stripping when come in contact w/water. Use of higher % of plastic waste reduces need of bitumen by 10 % . It also increases strength & performance of road. It is proved by various studies that coating of plastics & rubber reduces porosity, absorption of moisture, & improves soundness.
  • Under ‘Swachhata Hi Sewa’ programme of GOI, awareness programmes are being organised at campsite/local community centres, publicity thru FM Radio, cleaning of National Highways & collection of plastic waste/polythene bags/plastic bottles, cleaning up toll plazas, & organising Swachhata Workshops for truck drivers & toll employees.

National Voter ′ Day 2020 ′ Electoral Literacy for a Stronger Democracy ′

  • National Voters՚ Day is celebrated since 2011 to mark Foundation day of Election Commission of India (ECI) , which was established on this day in it a year 1950.
  • Main purpose of celebration is to encourage, facilitate, & maximise enrolment, especially for new voters.
  • National Voter՚s Day Year- wise themes are as following:
  • 2011: Greater Participation for a Stronger Democracy
  • 2012: Women՚s Registration
  • 2013; Inclusion
  • 2014: Ethical Voting
  • 2015: Easy Registration, Easy Correction
  • 2016: Inclusive & Qualitative Participation; No voter to be left behind
  • 2017: Empowering Young & Future Voters
  • 2018: Accessible Elections
  • 2019: No Voter to be Left Behind
  • 2020: Electoral Literacy for a Stronger Democracy.
  • Electoral Literacy Clubs VC (ELC) , Chunav Pathshalas, & Voter Awareness Forums ELCs operate at level of schools, colleges, & other institutions of learning; Chunav Pathshalas operate at community levels: & Voter Awareness Forums operate at level of organisations including Govt offices.
  • NVD connects voters w/electoral process & renews both, their relevance & contribution to democracy.

Tiger Corridors in India

A 3-pronged strategy to manage human-tiger negative interactions is advocated as follows:

  • Material & logistical support; Funding support thru ongoing Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Project Tiger, is provided to tiger reserves for acquiring capacity in terms of infrastructure & material, to deal w/tigers dispersing out of source areas.
  • Restricting habitat interventions:

Standard Operating Procedure (SOPs) : National tiger Conservation Authority has issued following three SOPs to deal w/man-animal conflict which are available in public domain:

  • To deal w/emergency arising due to straying of tigers in human dominated landscapes
  • To deal w/tiger depredation on livestock
  • For active mgmt. towards rehabilitation of tigers from source areas at landscape level.

In technical collaboration w/Wildlife Institute of India, National Tiger Conservation Authority has also published a document titled ‘Eco-Friendly measures to mitigate impacts of Linear infrastructure on wildlife’ to safeguard these corridors from linear infrastructure development besides sensitizing user agencies which inter alia include Indian Railway Traffic Service Probationers, National Highways Authority of India personnel, Indian Railway Engineers, besides others.

Key Points:

  • United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC Cop 25)
  • The Union Minister for Environment Forest & Climate Change (MoEF&CC)
  • Special Projects Like urban forests, School nursery, agro forestry, water & fodder augmentation in forest area.
  • ‘Swachh Bharat Abhiyan’ or ‘Clean India Mission’ on his 145th Mahatma Gandhi birth anniversary.
  • Kayakalp guidelines established by MoHFW encompassing parameters hospital/facility upkeep, sanitation & hygiene, waste mgmt, infection control, hospital support services, & hygiene promotion.
  • Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban) , AMRUT, Smart Cities Mission, NERUDP all of which address issue of urban sanitation.
  • Swachh Survekshan Mission Monitoring & Governance is innovative survey conduct by MoHUA under Swachh Bharat Mission- Urban.
  • W-SHARP aimed to sustain “A gender responsive & resilient community w/food & water security in drought prone area.”
  • Role for Community Radio in Disaster mgmt & climate change
Environment: Yojana January 2020 - Kayakalp Scheme, W-SHARP

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