Yojana June 2018: India on the Move (Part – 1) (Download PDF)

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Key Topics included in this Article: Mission Mode Projects (MMP) under e-Kranti, Pro-Active Governance & Timely Implementation (PRAGATI), Trafficking of Persons (Prevention, Protection & Rehabilitation) Bill, 2018.

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Yojana June 2018: India on the Move (In English)

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Yojana June 2018: India on the Move

  • Nigrani samitis

  • Satyagraha se Swachhagrah campaign

  • Raja Cheillah committee & Vijay Kelkar committee

  • Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana (PMBJP)

  • Yogam for control 5 senses

  • 11 Schemes under Krishonnati Yojana

  • Schemes for Skill Development & Entrepreneurship

Forthcoming Issue: Resurgent India

  • Emperors like Akbar, Krishnadevaraya, Chandragupta Maurya, Rajaraja Chola, Tipu Sultan et al tried to create good administrative systems for good governance of their kingdoms.

  • GST is so far biggest tax reform in country which will go long way in increasing tax buoyancy in country.

  • Key direct reforms like establishment of Tax Information Network (TIN), Electronic Return Acceptance & Consolidation System (ERACS), eSahyog, etc. have simplified direct tax regime.

Development through Digitization

  • Astronomical pace of digital data generation, dropping costs of data storage & compute infrastructure have enabled digitalization at unprecedented levels which is now being termed as 4th Industrial Revolution.

  • 📝 MMP under e-Kranti:

    • National e-Governance Plan 2.0, due to growing adoption of new platforms such as “mobile” & “cloud”,

    • ‘Transformation & not Translation’,

    • ‘Integrated Services & not Individual Services’,

    • ‘Govt. Process Reengineering (GPR) to be mandatory in every MMP’,

    • ‘ICT Infrastructure on Demand’,

    • ‘Cloud by Default’,

    • ‘Mobile First’,

    • ‘Fast Tracking Approvals’,

    • ‘Mandating Standards & Protocols’,

    • ‘Language Localization’,

    • ‘National GIS (Geo – Spatial Information System) ’,

    • ‘Security & Electronic Data Preservation’.

  • Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) is implemented across 437 schemes, & helped save Rs. 83, 000 cr. till date.

Leading the Way in Financial Inclusion

  • JAM (Jan Dhan – Aadhaar – Mobile) trinity forms basic data infrastructure for India Stack services consisting of e-KYC, eSign, instantaneous payments (UPI) & file storage (Digi locker). It is single largest factor for expansion of financial inclusion across world.

  • According to Global Findex Report 2017 released by World Bank, whopping 55 % of all bank accounts created during 2014 - 17 were opened in India.

Public Finance & Public Procurement going Digital

  • Public Financial Management System (PFMS) has led to creation of financial management platform for all plan schemes, database of all recipient agencies, integration w/core banking solution of banks, integration of state treasurers & tracking of fund flow to lowest tier of implementation of plan schemes on real-time basis.

  • PFMS has led to just-in-time release of funds & efficient management in use of funds, including ultimate utilization.

  • In 2016, Govt. e-Marketplace (GeM) was launched for single-window online procurement of commonly used, small-value goods & services.

📝 Pioneers in Innovate Consumer Payments

  • Unified Payments Interface (UPI) & Bharat Bill Payment System (BBPS)

  • Digital payment transactions have become extremely simple, because of BHIM (Bharat Interface for Money) UPI.

  • We have seen emergence of Google Tez & WhatsApp payment.

  • In 2017, India has seen over billion digital payment transactions in volume & over trillion rupees in value.

Digital Transformation

  • GST has resulted in 50 % increase in unique indirect taxpayers compared w/pre-GST system.

Digital Monitoring

  • In Pro-Active Governance & Timely Implementation (PRAGATI) program, PM has used technology to cut across departmental silos & geographical boundaries to ensure speedy project implementation.
Image of Digital Monitoring

Image of Digital Monitoring

Image of Digital Monitoring

Impact of Frontier Technologies

  • Recent Microsoft – International Data Corporation (IDC) study, ‘Unlocking Economic Impact of Digital Transformation in Asia Pacific’, predicts that digital transformation will add $154 billion to India’s GDP by 2021, increasing growth rate by 1 % annually.

  • In 2017, abt 4 % of GDP was derived from digital products & services created directly thru use of technologies like Cloud, Internet of Things (IoT) & artificial intelligence (AI).

  • NITI Aayog has taken up implementation of these technologies for specific use cases, under national priority areas, to assess & demonstrate benefits of frontier technologies.

  • These are termed as Proof – of – Concept (PoC) projects & are being tested in areas of precision agriculture using AI, land records on blockchain, assistive healthcare diagnostics using AI etc.

Making Development a Mass Movement

  • Present govt. has reportedly announced that it has 3 – pronged agenda: development, fast paced development, all round development.

  • Applying this perspective, one can readily classify reforms/programmes into 3 broad categories:

    • Those that are “quick wins” or “low hanging fruits”

    • Those that promise benefits only over medium to longer term

    • Those that thrust short term costs in return for significant gains later.

Addressing Market Failures

  • Further, by being founding member of International Solar Alliance, govt. has demonstrated proactive role in creation of global public goods.

  • Whether advancing implementation of Bharat Stage emission norms from IV to VI w/view to curb harmful effects of vehicular pollution or banning sale & import of oxytocin to prevent its possible misuse, it is all abt reducing negative spill – overs.

Addressing Challenges

  • Govt. has passed Real Estate Act to bring greater transparency in real estate transactions & to safeguard interest of home buyers.

  • Under its initiative – Min. Govt. , Max. Governance – govt. is increasing use of digital technology to substitute for human interface in enabling citizens to avail basic public services.

Another Rationale

  • People to practice yoga to stay healthy, to use Khadi clothes that can help generate incomes for khadi workers, to give-up LPG subsidy in favour of those who can’t afford it, to switch over to using LED bulbs for conserving electricity.

Offering Protective Hand

Encouraging Reporting & Supporting Survivors

  • Further, women can report violence to 181 women helpline, which is universal toll-free number providing emergency & non – emergency response to women in distress.
Image of Childline 1098 Children

Image of Childline 1098 Children

Image of Childline 1098 Children

Building a Strong Legal Framework

  • Ministry has recently drafted Trafficking of Persons (Prevention, Protection & Rehabilitation) Bill, 2018.

  • Bill fills existing gaps & covers all aspects of trafficking. It proposes to tackle trafficking by creating strong legal, economic & social environment for victims by establishing dedicated institutions at District, State & National level.

  • Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006 punishes those who promote, perform & abet child marriage.

  • Implementation of Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act (PWDVA), 2005 is being pushed across country & women are being provided support to report such cases.

Leveraging IT for protection

  • Central Reporting Mechanism is being created to work as hotline for anyone to report cybercrime & easier processes are being put in place to remove Child Pornography, Rape & Gang rape imagery etc.

Reflecting the True Spirit of a Jan Andolan

  • When Swachh Bharat Mission was 1st launched, 550 million people contributed towards practicing Open Defecation in India (OD). That number, today is down to approx. of 200 million.

  • In report ‘Financial & Economic Impact of SBM in India (2017) ’ UNICEF estimates that household in ODF village in rural India saves Rs. 50, 000 every year.

  • Members of village then form “Nigrani samitis” to ensure that no one breaks new norm of using toilet.

  • One initiative for same is rolling out of comprehensive self – assessment tool called Village Swachhata Index (VSI) developed to measure cleanliness.

  • 👌 Mission aims to have one Swachhagrahi in every village, that is, army of at least 6.5 lakh Swachhagrahis by March 2019.

  • Mahatma Gandhi launched Champaran Satyagraha over century ago, on 10th April, 1917, taking several steps to improve condition of people in Bihar, including basic education, skill development, women empowerment & cleanliness.

  • 👌 10th April, 2018 marked end of centenary year celebration of Champaran Satyagraha & was celebrated thru “Satyagraha se Swachhagrah” campaign.

  • 4 challenging States – Bihar, UP, Odisha & J&K, together saw addition of 30.91 lakh toilets b/w 13th March & 10th April, of which 14.82 lakh were in week from 4 - 10 April.

  • Achieving United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goal 6 in mission mode.

New-Age Skills – Generating Opportunities for Youth

  • W/nation’s average age of 29, skilling youth at scale w/speed & standards is key.

Reaping Fruits of Demographic Dividend

Some notable schemes for Skill Development & Entrepreneurship of GoI:

  • 👌 Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY)

    Initiative by GoI to train youth to prepare them for global markets thru industry – relevant training.

  • 👌 Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana – National Urban Livelihoods Mission (DAY – NULM)

    Sustainable livelihood thru skilling & up – skilling of urban poor for salaried employment or self – employment opportunities.

  • 👌 Director General of Training – Modular Employable Skills (DGT – MES)

    Scheme for school dropouts & existing workers in unorganized sector for improving gainful employment thru vocational training & apprenticeship programmes.

  • 👌 Deen Dayal Upadhyay Grameen Kaushalya Yojana (DDU – GKY)

    Placement linked skill development programme for rural youth.

  • 👌 National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC)

    PPP model under Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship that aims to promote skill development by creation of large number & quality – oriented training institutes.

  • 👌 National Skill Development Agency (NSDA)

    Autonomous body under Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship; coordinates skill development efforts of Govt. & Pvt. sector for achieving skilling targets by 2022.

  • 👌 Aajeevika – National Rural Livelihood Mission (NRLM)

    Initiative of Ministry of Rural Development, GoI that aims to provide opportunities to youth from rural areas to upgrade their skills & provide placement support.

  • 👌 Atal Innovation Mission (AIM)

    Initiative to promote culture of innovation & entrepreneurship by providing platform for idea generation & incubator & mentor support.

  • 👌 Startup India

Scheme to boost Indian Startup ecosystem. Action plan of this initiative based on simplification & handholding of Startups, funding support & Incentives, industry – academia partnership & incubation support.

New Age Skilling in Realm of Industry 4.0

  • Industry 4.0 is characterized by increasing digitization, connected machines, amalgamation of emerging technologies, business analytics & cyber – physical systems. This is concept of ‘Smart Factory’ where machines talk to each other thru sensors. This leads to productivity enhancement & resource optimization.

  • Re – skilling or up – skilling models of existing workforce have to be designed to equip them w/changed task/job roles.

  • GoI has come out w/ new draft for telecom policy – National Digital Communications Policy 2018 w/aim to create roadmap for emerging technologies. It has laid out plans to attract $100 billion investment & create 4 million jobs by 2022.

  • Promoting apprenticeship is critical asset for balance sheet. National Apprenticeship Promotion Programme (NAPS) is strategic programme in this direction.

Nurturing Innovation Climate

  • India is 6th largest manufacturing nation. It has improved its rank on Global Competitiveness Index & Global Innovation Index.

Rationalizing the Tax Structure

  • One of 1st major reforms in taxation system was to convert state level sales tax into VAT. Change in focus paid rich dividends to tax administration.

Sweeping Changes in Tax Structure

Income Tax

In India, corporate income tax rates for both domestic & foreign companies were reduced to 35% & 40%.

Central Excises & Customs

  • Central excise essentially operates as VAT that has evolved over almost 2 decades, w/small beginning in 1986 – 1987, when VAT – type credit mechanism for selected raw materials was introduced for production of specified goods.

  • In 1994 - 1995, capital goods were made creditable. Emerging quasi – VAT structure was termed Modified VAT or MODVAT.

  • W/further effort to reduce main rates to only 2 – 8 & 16%- it was renamed Central VAT, or CENVAT, in 2001.

Tax Administration

  • For any new tax policy reform to succeed, 3 elements were important, expanding taxpayer base, computerization; & implementation of state – level VAT.

  • One of biggest achievements in central tax administration was impressive expansion of taxpayer net for income tax.

  • In min – 1990s, taxpayer roll included some 14 million taxpayers, of which 10 million to 11 million were current.

  • 2nd half of 1990s, voluntary disclosure program required individual income earners possessing ownership of property & telephones, & trips undertaken abroad, to register even if their taxable income was nil.

  • Initiative towards tax reforms began in mid – 1980s when govt. announced Long Term Fiscal Policy, 1985.

  • Govt. appointed in succession 2 committees under 2 senior bureaucrats to come up w/plan that would substantially overhaul taxation system & bring it on par or tune it w/international taxation system or rates.

  • So Raja Cheillah committee & Vijay Kelkar Committee came into being.

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Yojana June 2018: India on the Move (In Hindi)

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Yojana June 2018: India on the Move

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- Published/Last Modified on: July 2, 2018

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