Yojana June 2019 - Yoga & Alternative Systems of Medicine (Part 3) (Download PDF)


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Siddha System of Medicine in A Nutshell: Siddha Medicine: - Term ‘Siddha’ is derived from root word ‘Siddhi’ which means ‘an object to be attained ’ or ‘perfection’. Practitioners of Siddha medicine aimed at perfection of health. Siddha system of medicine owes its origin to medicinal ideas & practices of a class of Tamil sages called Siddhars- “perfected” or “holy immortals”- who were, & are still, believed to have superhuman powers as word siddhi itself refers to supernatural powers.

  • One of definitions of Siddha medicine is conquest of death: “That which ensures preventive against mortality”.

Basic Human Principles- 96 Thathuvas

Five Elements: -

  • Primordial elements are called panchamaha bootham, namely mann (earth), neer (water), kattru (air) & aagayam (space).
  • Role of five elements giving just skeletal framework to human body, it is indispensable in prescription of therapeutic regimen.

Three Humours

  • To regulate living body easily five primordial elements were concised into three
  • Humours namely vazhi (vadham or air), azhal (pittam or heat) & Iyyam (kapha or cold).
  • First one third of one’s life is considered as vazhi period where a person grows physically, psychologically, emotionally, spiritually, etc. Vazhi is always regarded as generative phase in physiological condition.
  • Iyyam is vitiated during first period of life. Second third of ones life is considered as azhal period where life is considered to be in maintenance phase in physiological condition.
  • Last one third of one’s life is physiologically attributed to Iyyam period or destructive/senile phase of one life.
  • Vazhi is imbalanced & hence an individual suffers from pain & degenerative disorders like spondylitis, osteoarthritis, etc.

Five Sheaths (Kosham)

  • Kosham system refers to diff. aspects as layers of subjective experience. Layers range from dense physical body to more subtle levels of emotions, mind & spirit.
  • They are paruva udambu- annamya kosham (food- apparent physical sheath), valiudambu Pranamaya kosham (air-apparent sheath), mana udambu- manomaya kosham (mind apparent sheath), arivudamb u- Vijnanamaya kosham (wisdom- apparent – Intellectual sheath) & inba udambu- Anandamaya kosham (bliss-
  • Apparent sheath).

Ten Pranic Air (Vayus)

  • Apart from 5 fundamental pancha vayus such as pranan, udanan, abanan, viyanan, samanan, there are five more ancillary vayus namely nagan, koorman, kirugaran, devathatan & thanjeyan.
  • Other thathuvas include 10 major channels (nadi), 8 passions (ragam), 6 chakras (atharam), 5 major cavities (asaayam), 4 Inner faculties (anthakaranam), 3 qualities (gunas), 2 acts (vinai), etc.

Siddha Diagnosis

  • Siddha system of medicine, eight tools are mentioned in armamentarium of Siddha physicians.
  • They are as follows: Nasdi (Siddha way of Pulse examination), Sparisam (Touch & palpation), Naa (Tongue examination), Niram (Colour, complexion, discoloration etc. ), Mozhi (Voice examination), Vizhi (Eyes examination), Malam (Stools examination) & Moothiram (Urine examination) including Oil on Urine Sign (Neikkuri).

Oil on Urine Sign (Neikkuri Examination)

  • Neikkuri or Oil on urine sign is a unique method in Siddha system of medicine to arrive at diagnosis & prognosis of disease conditions.
  • In this test an oil drop preferably of sesame oil is instilled over surface of urine sample surface & spreading pattern of oil drop is observed over a minute & viewed.

Siddha Therapy

Commendable usage of herbs can be understood by a special method popularly known as ega mooligai prayokam. It means selecting & administering a single herb on basis of five elements that is affected humour.

Line of Treatment

  • Purgative therapy provides relief from deranged vazhi humour. Emetic therapy is used to get rid body of azhal humour.
  • Nasal a7 ophthalmic application helps to prevention of Iyya diseases affecting head & neck.
  • Blood letting therapy by leech application is preferred, if all three humours are vitiated & for chronic diseases.
  • According to Siddha maxim “food itself is medicine & Medicine itself is food”.


  • Science of Varmalogy was introduced Siddha sages realized souls. Varmam can be understood as follows “wherever vasi touches, there is varmam.
  • Varmam is used as a general word to cover ’ vasi’, vital air & breath.
  • More than 8000 varmam points are described in varmam texts.
  • Fundamental treatment procedures such as purgation, vomiting & nasal application can be induced by stimulating varmam points alone.
  • Siddha Medicine is a unique blend of therapies which provide holistic care & offer advice for a more natural healthy lifestyle.

Homeopathy Treats you in Person

  • Homeopathy was discovered by a German doctor, Dr. Samuel Hahnemann, in his discontentment w/then medical practices & lack of cures.

Why Choose Homeopathy?

  • Principles that Homeopathy works on include such nature based, pragmatic facts, like treating a person holistically, thru a single, simple medicine, prepared in a dynamic manner, & prescribed in a dosage that is just enough to stir up self healing mechanism of your own body.

Homeopathy Addresses Multi Morbidity Successfully

  • Arthritis pains, hypertension, thyroid disease as well as diabetes.
  • Homeopathy addresses these conditions in a patient successfully that too w/single or at most w/two medicines.

Homeopathy is A Science as well as Art

  • A Homeopathic doctor tries to understand person who is suffering, personality & psychological aspects of that person & pays enough time to analyze this information, which eventually leads him to finding a correct remedy.
  • Nobel Laureates – Emeritus Professor of Physics, University of Cambridge (UK) Brian D Josephson & French virologist Prof. Luc Montaigne endorsed credibility of Homeopathy thru their understanding of science.

What Illnesses are Best Treated w/Homeopathy?

  • For diseases of chronic or prolonged nature, like various types of arthritis, diabetes mellitus, migraine, sinusitis, respiratory & cardiovascular problems, Homeopathic treatment is very poplar due to its known effectiveness.

Finding a Homeopathic Doctor

  • Homeopathic doctors are given BHMS (Bachelors of Homeopathic Medicine & Surgery) after their graduation.
  • These doctors are trained w/same subjects that are taught to allopathic students during their graduation, apart from Homeopathic ones, which means knowledge of medicine of a Homeopathic doctor is no less than a conventional medicine doctor.
  • Homeopathy doctors are registered under statutory registration boards of their respective states, & / or under a central registration body, Central Council of Homeopathy.
  • Unani System of Medicine: Science of Health & Healing
  • Unani System deals w/various states of health & disease.
  • Fundamentals, diagnosis & treatment modalities of system are based on scientific principles & holistic concepts of health & healing.
  • Unani System of Medicine considers entire universe including human beings, disease, drugs, environmental factors etc. to be intrinsically defined by four primary qualities Hot, Cold, Dry & Wet.

Concept of Health Promotion & Disease Prevention

  • In Unani system, health is divided into three states: stable optimum.
  • Unani System of Medicine specially emphasizes six essential factors (asbabsitta Ddaruriyya) i. e. air, food & drink, bodily movement & repose, psychic movement & repose, sleep & wakefulness, & evacuation & retention, whose appropriate deployment by their temperament, ensures health.
  • Unani System of Medicine looks holistically into overall physical, mental & spiritual aspects of a person.
  • Health is restored by adopting various treatment modalities like Regimenal therapy (‘Ilajbi’l Tadbir), Dietherapy (‘Ilajbi’-l Ghidha’), Pharmacotherapy (‘Ilajbi’ l- Dawa’), & Surgery (‘Ilajbi’l-Yad).
  • Regimenal therapy along w/Dietotherapy is considered best approach for promotion of health & treatment of disease.
  • Unani System of Medicine has emphasized on importance of psychiatric treatment (‘IlajNafsani) in mgmt. of various diseases.

Management of Diseases

  • In Unani System of Medicine mgmt. of diseases focuses on pathology involved in disease process & works towards removal of causative factor (Izala-iSabab), normalization of morbid temperament (Ta’dil-iMizaj) & evacuation of morbid material (Tanqiya).
  • Concept of Heterotherapy (‘Ilajbi’-l- Didd) is used for treating disease by applying drugs & non-drug factors w/opposite temperament.

Regimenal therapy (‘Ilajbi’l- Tadbir)

  • These include change in diet, physical exercise, lifestyle modification & measures to eliminate morbid humours (Tanqiya) from body or divert them (Imala) by Cupping (Hijamah), Massage (Dalk), Leeching (Ta’liq), Venesection (fasd), Purgation (Ishal), Emesis (Qay’), Diuresis (Idrar-I Bawl), Enema (Huqna), Diaphoresis (Ta’riq), Experctoration (Tanfith), Counter Irritation (Ilam), Sitz bath (Abzan) etc.
  • Research & Development: Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine (CCRUM) under Ministry of AYUSH,
  • Research programme of CCRUM mainly comprises of Clinical Research including safety & efficacy studies of Unani drugs, validation of Fundamentals & Regimenal Therapies, Drug Standardization & Quality Control, Survey & Cultivation of Medicinal Plants, & Literary Research.
  • Information, Education & Communication (IEC), International Cooperation & Human Resource Development (HRD) are part of Council’s activities in addition to extension of health services.
  • Under literary research program, classical books & manuscripts originally written in Arabic & Persian have been collated, edited, translated into Urdu & got published.

Educational & Other Infrastructure

There are 259 Unani hospitals, 1621 Unani dispensaries, 625 Unani drug manufacturing units & around 51,110 Unani practitioners in country as on 1st April, 2018.

- Published/Last Modified on: July 11, 2019


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