Yojana June 2019 - Yoga & Alternative Systems of Medicine (Part 4 ) (Download PDF)

()

Download PDF of This Page (Size: 225.69 K)

Homeopathy in India An Overview: Homeopathy: -Word ‘Homeopathy’ is derived from two Greek words, ‘Homois” meaning similar & pathos meaning ‘suffering’. It is based on natural law of healing- ” Similia Similibus Curantur” which means “likes are cured by likes”. All over world 10th April is celebrated as ‘world Homeopathic Day’.

Founder of Homeopathy

Dr. Christian Friedrich Samuel Hahnemann (10 April 1755 - 2 July 1843), a German Physician articulated its basic principles & organized Homeopathy as a new medical system in 1796

  • Term “Homeopathy” was coined by Hahnemann & first appeared in print in 1807.
  • Effective drugs produce symptoms in healthy people that are similar to diseases they are expected to treat.
  • This principal is now known as “Law of Similar” & is basis for use of term homeopathy, i. e. similar suffering.

Homeopathy in India

  • Homeopathy came to India in 1810.
  • Homeopathy flourished in Bengal at first & then spread all over India. Babu Rajendra Lal Dutt (1818 - 1889) may be called Father of Indian Homeopathy.

Central Council of Homeopathy

Central Council of Homeopathy Act was made in 1973.

Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia Laboratory (HPL)

  • Homeopathic Pharmacopeia Laboratory (HPL) has been established in year 1975 as standard setting cum drug testing laboratory at a national level.
  • It has been declared as Apex Drug Testing Laboratory for purpose of quality control.

National Institute of Homeopathy

  • National Institute of Homeopathy was established in December, 1975 - 1978.
  • Formation of Separate Department for all existing alternative systems of medicine
  • Govt. launched National AYUSH Mission w/objectives of providing cost effective AYUSH Services, w/a universal access thru upgrading AYUSH Hospitals & Dispensaries, co-location of AYUSH facilities at Primary Health Centres (PHCs), Community Health Centres (CHCs) & District Hospitals (DHs), strengthening institutional capacity at state level thru upgrading AYUSH educational institutions, State Gvot.

Non Govt. Organizations in Homeopathy

  • Admission to Undergraduate & Post graduate courses in Homeopathy:
  • Undergraduate:
  • Admission to BHMS is done on basis of valid score in NEET UG.

Post Graduate:

  • Candidates w/a BHMS degree from a recognized institution & one year of compulsory internship are eligible to apply for MD in Homeopathy
  • Admission to MD is done on basis of performance in AIAPGET.

Homeopathy as a Career Option

  • After completion of Degree one can have one’s private practice.
  • Homeopathic Pharmaceutical companies hire Homeopathic doctors in diff. wings.
  • A Well trained Homeopathic doctor can get employment as a Medical Officer/Assistant Professor/Reader/Professor at various private & Govt. Homeopathic Hospitals/Medical College.
  • They can work as research officer, Research associate, research fellow in organizations like CCRH.
  • Naturopathy: Science of Health & Wellness

Concept of Health & wellness in Naturopathy

  • Naturopathy is a traditional system of healing based upon natural principles that govern life, living & health.
  • References of such principles can be found in scriptures like Vedas, Upanishads & Epics like Ramayana & Mahabharata.
  • Naturopathy is called a drugless system of healthcare based on well founded philosophy & practices.
  • Its main emphasis is on holistic approach to health, covering, moral & spiritual aspects.
  • Salient feature of Naturopathy practice is that it educates patient in health matters.
  • Naturopathy believes that all living beings in nature stay healthy as long as they are tuned w/natural laws.
  • Man is only creature in universe that has ability to defy nature & has a freedom to choose & act.
  • Naturopathy believes nature as supreme healer.
  • Naturopathy recommends following a proper diet & other laws of health as under:
  • Fresh air & sun shine;
  • Deep breathing exercise;
  • Correct posture;
  • Rest;
  • Recreation
  • Relaxation;
  • Sleep;
  • Right mental attitude;
  • Internal cleanliness;
  • Proper elimination.
  • Naturopathy is recognized & promoted as an independent system of healthcare under ambit of AYUSH.
  • Naturopathy believes that basis elements Panchamahabhutas viz. Eather (akasha), Air (vayu), Fire (Agni), Water (Jala) & Earth (prithvi) & so is human body.

Therapeutic Modalities Used in Naturopathy

  • Main therapeutic modalities of Naturopathy employed for preventive, promotive & curative purpose are following:

Upvas Chikitsa (Fasting Therapy)

  • Upvas is considered as primary treatment modality in Naturopathy.

Aahar Chikitsa (Diet therapy)

  • Aahar (diet) is an important component of Naturopathic plan of disease mgmt.

Mitti Chikitsa (Mud Therapy)

  • Mud packs & bath are among most popular & effective treatments of Naturopathy.

Jala Chikitsa (Hydrotherapy)

  • It is treats body w/application of Jala (water) in all its forms solid (ice), liquid & Vapor, internally & externally.

Malish Chikitsa (Massage Therapy)

Aim of massage therapy is to influence sympathetic & parasympathetic nervous systems to improve blood circulation, to reduce body pains & aches, & to strengthen body organs & finally restoring sense of well being.

Surya kiran Chikitsa (Helio therapy)

  • It is an important therapy under Naturopathy. Seven colors of Sun rays i. e. Violet, Indigo, Blue, Green, yellow, Orange & Red have diff. therapeutic effects.

Vayu Chikitsa (Air Therapy)

  • In Naturopathy advantage of air therapy is achieved by taking air bath. Benefits of air bath is obtained by practice of Pranayama, Surya Namaskara or while taking Sun Bath.

Yoga Chikitsa (Yoga Therapy)

  • Various Yogic practices such as Yogic Shatkarmas (Cleansing techniques), Yogasanas (Psycho-physical postures), Pranayama (control of vital energy breath) & Dhyana (meditative practices) are prescribed in combination/Naturopathy treatments in prevention of disease, promotion of health, & mgmt. of diff. lifestyle related disease conditions.

Internal treatment: enema

Role of Yoga & Naturopathy in Promotion of Health & Wellness.

  • 18th November will be observed as ’ Naturopathy Day’ every year.
  • Ayurveda- Fifty years of Transforming Research & development in India
  • Ayurveda, was discovered thru suitable sources of acquiring knowledge & producing evidence (pramāna), viz. Pratyaksh (Direct perception), Anumāna (logical inference), Aptopadesha (verbal & authentic documentary testimony), Yukti (experimental evidences), etc.
  • Central Research Institute for Ayurveda was established at Jamnagar in 1953.
  • Research Composite Drug Research Scheme (CDRS) was initiated in 1964.
  • Gradually over time all AYUSH system of medicines were made into separate research council & in 1978 CCRAS (Central Council for Research in Ayurveda & Siddha) was formed which later bifurcated further into Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS) & Central Council for Research in Siddha in 2011.

AYUSH Research Portal

  • oA web based AYUSH Research Portal has been initiated by Ministry of AYUSH, to showcase published research works in AYUSH systems of medicine cataloging about 26873 research abstracts as on May 2019.

R & D in Ayurveda

  • CCRAS is an apex organization for formulation, coordination, development & promotion of Research in Ayurveda & Sowa Rigpa systems of medicine.
  • In Ayurveda special focus is given to purification & other processing of potentially toxic plants & metalo mineral Materials.

Integration of Ayurveda w/Modern System of Medicine

  • Ayurveda defines health as a state of equilibrium of dosha (regulatory & functional entities of body), dhatu (structural entities), mala (excretory entities) & Agni (digestive & metabolic factors) along w/healthy state of sensory & motor organs & mind w/their harmonious relationship w/soul.
  • Strength of Ayurveda of lies in its three fold holistic approach of prevention of disease, promotion of health & cure of disease.
  • India has a long history & strong base of traditional medicine & Ayurveda is poised to get globalized for benefit of humanity.
  • Health promotive, disease preventive, rehabilitative & recuperative roles of Ayurveda coupled w/its holistic approach is a driving force that has taken world by a storm.

Research in Ayurvedic Fundamentals

  • Trans disciplinary & integrated approaches are essential for positioning Ayurveda as potent Health Care system across globe.
  • Fundamental diagnostic approaches, Ayurveda based predictive medicine are some of important areas
  • CCRAS has developed a comprehensive Prakriti (a major parameter to assess health & disease in individualized form) Assessment Scale based on Ayurvedic texts along w/Ayur Prakriti Web Portal.
  • Validation & Reliability Testing of Ayurveda Diagnostic Tools (Roga Pareeksh & Rogi Pareeksh) which is a unique aspect of Ayurveda.
  • New initiative of Ayurveda biology programme will pave way toward better understanding & interdisciplinary approach for validation of Ayurvedic fundamentals.
  • National AYUSH Morbidity & Standardized Terminology E Portal (NAMASTE Portal)
  • §National Ayurveda Morbidity Codes (NAMC) is an important part of this document which is being used for morbidity data collection under NAMASTE Portal.
  • This portal has potential to revolutionize morbidity statistics data collection.
This image show in International Yoga Day Logo Meaning

This Image Show in International Yoga Day Logo Meaning

This image show in International Yoga Day Logo Meaning

About International Day of Yoga Logo

  • Folding of both hands in logo symbolize Yoga, union which reflects union of individual consciousness w/that of universal consciousness, a perfect harmony between mind & body, man & nature; holistic approach to health & well- being.
  • Brown leaves symbolize Earth element, green leaves symbolize nature, blue symbolizes water element, brightness symbolizes water element, brightness symbolizes fire element & Sun symbolizes source of energy & inspiration.
  • Logo reflects harmony & peace for humanity, which is essence of Yoga.

Promotion of Yoga

  • UNESO inscribed Yoga in representative list of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.
  • Inclusion of Yoga in National Health Policy 2017; in order to leverage a proper healthcare legacy, National Health Policy 2017 recommended introduction of Yoga in school & at work places as part of promotion of good health.
  • Yoga Education was made compulsory by National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE), a statuary body under Ministry of Human Resource Development, thru its 15 Teacher Education Programmes.
  • Established by Ministry of AYUSH for certification of Yoga professionals & accreditation of Yoga Institution & Personnel Certification Body.
  • UGC has established Yoga Departments in six Central Universities & framed Standard Yoga Syllabi for various courses e. g. B. Sc. , M. Sc. & P. D programmers in Yoga by constituting an Expert Committee.
  • National Eligibility Test (NET) in Yoga has been conducted for Lectureship & Research Fellowship for first time.
  • ICCR signed an MoU w/Yunnan Minzu University, China for establishment of Yoga College named “India- China College of Yoga”.

NCERT has taken initiative of ” YOGA OLYMPIAD” for School Children.

  • Morarji Desai National Institute of Yoga (MDNIY), Ministry of AYUSH, GOI has introduced Yoga training to Central Armed Police Force (CAPF) & more than 1385 Master Yoga Trainers have been trained by MDNIY.
  • National AYUSH Mission: It inter alia makes provision for following:
  • Upgradation of exclusive State Govt. AYUSH Hospitals & Dispensaries including Yoga.
  • Setting up of upto 50 bedded integrated AYUSH Hospital including Yoga.
  • Under flexible components of scheme of NAM, provision has been made for Grant-in-aid to Yoga Wellness centres.
  • MEDICINE IN India originated around 3000 BC, when practice of Ayurveda is considered to have started.
  • Period of 800BC to 600AD is regarded as golden period for Indian medicine, a period which coincides w/widely accepted authorities in Ayurvedic medicine, such as Atreya, Charaka & Sushruta.
  • Atreya (about 800BC) is considered as first great Indian physician & teacher.
  • Charaka (200 AD; written as Caraka) wrote Charaka Samhita & was most popular physician of time. Sushruta is referred to as father of Indian surgery. He wrote Shushruta Samhita, a treatise on surgery (b/w 800 BC & 400 AD).
  • Around 800 AD, Charaka & Sushruta Samhitas were translated into Persian & Arabic & Indian medicine had spread to Indo- China, Indonesia, Tibet, Central Asia & Japan.

Sowa- Rigpa

  • Word combination means ‘science of healing’ & is considered one of oldest living & well documented medical traditions of world.
  • It originated from Tibet & is widely practiced in India, Nepal, Bhutan, Mongolia & Russia. In India this system is practiced mainly in Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Darjeeling (West Bengal), Dharamshala, Lahaul & Spiti (Himachal Pradesh) & in parts of Delhi.

- Published/Last Modified on: July 11, 2019

Yojana

Monthy-updated, fully-solved, large current affairs-2019 question bank(more than 2000 problems): Quickly cover most-important current-affairs questions with pointwise explanations especially designed for IAS, NTA-NET, Bank-PO and other competetive exams.