Yojana March 2019: Development (Part-2) (Download PDF)

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Unleashing Youth Power for Development: India is youngest nation of world; developing youth to unleash their full potential will only make India global economic powerhouse. Reforms in education, skill development & entrepreneurship thru various Central/State Govt. schemes have given access to education & employment to large number of youth from disadvantaged communities.

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Development: Yojana March 2019 (In English)

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Yojana March 2019: Development

  • Pvt. Sector thru Corporate Social Responsibility provisions has started multiple projects for educating & skilling youth particularly from downtrodden communities.
  • Emerging technologies like AI, IoT, 3D printing, automation, robotics, etc. are changing skilling landscape. This skills are in high demand, missions like – Skill India, Digital India & Startup India are making strong pitch to Indian youth & they are making best use of these programs.
  • SDG 4 resolves in guaranteeing equal & accessible education by building inclusive learning environments & providing needed assistance for persons w/disabilities.
  • SDG 8 highlights promoting of inclusive economic growth, full & productive employment allowing persons w/disabilities to fully access job market.
  • 2030 agenda for sustainable development mentions ‘Persons w/disabilities’ 11 times.
  • Current framework is geared towards making them fully participate w/their peers w/o disabilities.
  • Programs relating to inclusive education, universal design & emerging technologies, digital economy & digital interfaces have started showing results.
  • Use of assistive technologies, internet, social media & other technological innovations are creating opportunities for youth w/disabilities to become part of mainstream education, skill development & entrepreneurship opportunities.
  • Tribal development is main agenda of governance as special attention is given to channelize major schemes & sources of funds for development of tribal youth & improve their livelihood.
  • Special Central Assistance to Tribal Sub-Scheme is 100 % grant which is utilized for economic development of Integrated Tribal Development Project (ITDP), Integrated Tribal Development Agency (ITDA), Modified Area Development Approach (MADA), Clusters, Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs) & dispersed tribal population.
  • Objective of Central Sector Scheme is to give support to tribals for production, product development, preservation of traditional heritage & support to both forest & agricultural produce of tribal people.
  • National Scheduled Tribes Finance & Development Corporation (NSTFDC) helps tribal youth to upgrade their skills & processes thru institutional & on job training.
  • NSTFDC provides national overseas scholarships for ST students for studying abroad to pursue post-graduation, PhD & post doctoral study abroad.
  • Vocational Training in Tribal Areas is one of imp. schemes to develop skills of ST youth for diff. natures of employment & self-employment.
  • Indian Youth is key agent for socio-economic development & technological innovation.
  • Their collective energies & vision is engine of growth of our nation. It is collective responsibility of pvt. sector, public sector & civil society to provide adequate opportunities & programmes for all sections of youth to give them equal access to education, skill development & entrepreneurship opportunities.

Social Inclusion: Strategies and Way Forward

  • Sections of society are classified as STs, SCs, OBCs, De-Notified Tribes (DNTs), Nomadic Tribes (NTs), Semi-Nomadic Tribes (SNTs), Safai Karmacharis (SKs), Religious Minorities, Economically Backward Classes (EBCs), PwDs, Senior Citizens, Destitutes, Transgender, Women & Children.
  • Constitution of India guaranteed fundamental rights to all its citizens irrespective of caste, creed, gender or religion, along w/clear direction to ensure welfare of backward communities.
  • Directive Principles of State Policy enables to protect & promote their well being.
  • Govt. have taken several measures by adopting underprivileged friendly policies & programs.

Initiatives & Interventions

  • India is welfare State w/constitutional mandate & democratic obligations to ensure social inclusion of all its citizens w/special focus on vulnerable, disadvantaged & weaker sections of society.
  • Empowering them at par w/rest of society as part of social inclusion & inclusive development is commitment of successive Govt. to people.

Interventions for Education

  • Pre-Matric Scholarship, Post-Matric Scholarship, National Fellowships, National Overseas Scholarships, Means-cum Merit Scholarship, Top Class Education are some of key scholarship & fellowship programs to enhance enrolment, reduce dropout at diff. levels of education, secure professional qualifications & ensure employability & self sustenance.
  • Residential Schools are established for tribal students to reduce dropout & provide quality education.
  • Govt. has given funds to States for construction & maintenance of Hostels for Boys & Girls from weaker sections.
  • Free coaching is given for SC, ST, OBC, Minorities, PwDs students to enable them to compete w/general category students.
  • Merit-cum-Means Scholarship for professional & technical courses is provided to students from minority communities who fulfill eligibility criteria of merit & means for pursuing professional & technical courses at under-graduate & post-graduate levels in recognized institutions.
  • Maulana Azad National Fellowship for Minority Students is to pursue higher studies at M. Phil & Ph. D level.
  • Support for students clearing Prelims is provided to increase representation of minorities in Civil Services.
  • Grant-in-Aid is provided to Voluntary Organizations working for SCs, STs, OBCs, PwDs, Minorities, Women & Children.
  • Objective of scheme is to utilize services of capable & reliable Voluntary Organizations towards socio economic development of weaker sections.

Interventions for Economic Development

  • To ensure economic participation of weaker sections various economic development programs are being implemented.
  • Among them are subsidized credit facilities given thru:

⁻ National Scheduled Castes Finance & Development Corporation (NSFDC) for SCs,

⁻ National Safaikaramcharis Finance & Development Corporation (NSKFDC) for Safaikarmacharis

⁻ National Backward Classes Finance & Development Corporation (NBCFDC) for BCs

⁻ National Scheduled Tribes Finance & Development Corporation (NSTFDC) for STs

⁻ National Minorities Finance & Development Corporation (NMDFC) for minorities

⁻ National Handicapped Finance & Development Corporation (NHFDC) for PwDs

⁻ Rashtriya Mahila Kosh (RMK) for women

⁻ State channelizing agencies like State Development Corporations (SDCs)

  • Aim is to ensure that their target groups are uplifted at par w/rest of society.
  • Venture Capital Fund of SC & BC, Credit Guarantee Fund for SCs, Standup India & MUDRA schemes encourages entrepreneurs from these groups.
  • Programs like Central Assistance to SC & ST Sub plans, Pradhan Mantri Adarsh Gram Yojana for SCs, Pradhan Mantri Jan Kalyan Yojana- objectives are to give thrust to development programmes relevant for infrastructure & economic development of SCs, STs & Minorities.
  • Fair returns are ensured thru MSP for identified MFPs collected by them
  • Self Employment Scheme for Rehabilitation of Manual Scavengers provides one time cash assistance & other skill training programs & handholding support.
  • Skill Development Initiatives to urban & rural livelihoods are aimed at improving inclusive growth by providing skills to minority communities who don’t possess any employable skills.
  • Nai Manzil aims to engage constructively w/poor Minority youth & help them to obtain sustainable & gainful employment.
  • Upgrading Skills & Training in Traditional Arts/Crafts for Development (USTTAD) aims at conserving traditional arts/crafts & for building capacity of traditional artisans & craftsmen belonging to minority communities.

Interventions for Social Empowerment

  • ICDS scheme for children & women provides supplementary nutrition, non-formal pre-school education, immunization, health check-up & referral services.
  • POSHAN Abhiyaan strives to reduce level of stunting, under nutrition, anaemia & low birth weight in children & focuses on adolescent girls, pregnant women & lactating mothers.
  • National Crèche Scheme provides day care facilities to children of working mothers & other eligible women belonging to families.
  • Beti Bachao Beti Padhao scheme prevents gender based sex selective elimination, ensures survival, protection, education & participation of girl child.
  • Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana provides partial compensation for wage loss in terms of cash incentives for pregnant women & lactating mothers.
  • Scheme for Adolescent Girls to improve their nutritional & health status & upgrade their skills.
  • Scheme for Leadership Development of Minority Women provides leadership training & skill development.
  • Swadhar Grehaims to target women victims of difficult circumstances who are in need of institutional support for rehabilitation.
  • Support to Training & Employment Programme (STEP) provide skills that gives employability to women, competencies & skills.
  • Ujjawala is for prevention of Trafficking & Rescue, Rehabilitation, Re-integration & Repatriation of victims of Trafficking for Commercial Sexual Exploitation.
  • §Mahila Shakti Kendra empowers rural women thru community participation.
  • Home for Widows namely Krishna Kutirprovide widows w/safe & secure place of stay, nutritions food, health services & legal & counselling services.
  • Assistance to Disabled Persons for Purchase/Fitting of Aids & Appliances (ADIP), assist needy disabled persons in procuring durable, sophisticated & scientifically manufactured, modern, standard aids & appliances.
  • Deendayal Disabled Rehabilitation Scheme (DDRS) is implemented for rehabilitation of persons w/disabilities.
  • Scheme for implementation of Persons w/Disability Act 2016 (SIPDA) supports activities relating to Accessible India campaign & implementation of Persons w/Disabilities Act.
  • Rashtriya Vayoshri Yojana provides Physical Aids & Assisted living devices for aged suffering from Age Related Disabilities/infirmities belonging to BPL Category.
  • National Social Assistance program provides social security benefits to aged, disabled & women in crisis.
  • Assistance to Voluntary Organizations for Programmes Relating to Aged provides grants for running & maintenance of day-care centres, old age homes, mobile Medicare units etc.
  • Scheme for Prevention of Alcoholism & Substance Abuse & Integrated Programme for Rehabilitation of Beggars ensures rehabilitation of beggars.
  • Scheme of HamariDharoharfor conservation & protection of culture & heritage of Minorities.

Political Representation & Reservation in Employment

  • Constitution of India, mandates for earmarking of seats in Lok Sabha & State Legislatures for SCs & STs.

Other Institutional Mechanisms

  • Imp. agencies:

⁻ Baba Saheb Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Foundation

⁻ Dr. Ambedkar National Memorial

⁻ Dr. B. R. Ambedkar International Centre

⁻ Tribal Research Institutes

⁻ National Institute of Social Defence

  • Agencies promote well-being of aged, destitute, victims of substance abuse, transgender & other social defence groups.
  • National Trust for Welfare of Persons w/Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation & Multiple Disabilities implements various programs for Persons w/Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation & Multiple Disabilities.
  • National University of Rehabilitation Science & Disability Studies is being established.
  • Rehabilitation Council is apex statutory body to enforce uniform standards in country in training of professionals in field of rehabilitation of disabled persons.
  • Indian Sign Language, Research & Training Centre provides professional training courses w/view to develop trained manpower in disability sector & is providing various other rehabilitation services.
  • Artificial Limbs Manufacturing Corporation of India (ALIMCO) manufactures artificial limbs for disabled persons & distributes aids & appliances for disabled & aged persons.
  • Special Programme for Minorities is for Haj Mgmt. in India & Saudi Arabia. Qaumi Waqf Board Taraqqiati Scheme & Shahari Waqf Sampatti Vikas Yojana are being implemented for Computerization of Records, Strengthening of State Waqf Boards.
  • Central Waqf Council is implementing agency for both schemes.
  • Maulana Azad Education Foundation is voluntary, non-political, non-profit making, organization established to promote education.
  • Food & Nutrition Board (FNB) provides inputs for nutrition education & awareness thru wide range of nutrition education & extension services & training programmes.
  • National Institute of Public Cooperation & Child Development (NIPCCD) provides information services in field of public cooperation & child development.
  • Central Adoption Resource Agency (CARA) statutory body functions as nodal agency for adoption of Indian children.
  • Central Social Welfare Board (CSWB) has initiated several programmes for welfare & development of women & children.

Harnessing Women Power for Development

  • Goal of inclusive development is to achieve inclusive society able to accommodate differences & to value diversity.
  • Feminists working in development have played significant role in globalizing concept of empowerment as favoured strategy for promoting gender equality & just development.

Empowerment of Women: Perspective

  • Acknowledging that women’s empowerment is process in which women increase their choices & freedom to participate, negotiate, influence & hold accountable institutions that affect their lives is step in right direction.
  • Women’s empowerment will be achieved when women perceive gender empowerment as meaningful goal worth striving for.
  • Creating conditions wherein these goals are possibility demands incorporation of women’s voice & agency as central prerequisites in gender empowerment policies & programmes.
  • Women’s empowerment is process in which women gain greater share of control over resources-material, human & intellectual, like knowledge information, ideas & financial resources like money & access to money & control over decision making in home, community, society & nation & to gain ‘power’.

Empowering Women: Initiatives

  • PM Matru Vandana Yojana give financial protection to women during their pregnancy & lactation period.
  • Maternity Benefit Act allowing working women 26 weeks of paid maternity leave.

Empowerment Programmes for Women:

DeenDayalUpadhyay Antyodaya Yojana (DAY-NRLM)

o Aims to achieve universal social mobilization by involving rural women.

o NRLM has devised special strategies to reach out to all these vulnerable communities & help them graduate out of Poverty.

o 2 imp. components of Ajeevika:

  • DeenDayalUpadhyayGrameenKaushalya Yojana (DDU-GKY) aims to skill rural youth who are poor & provide them w/jobs having regular monthly wages or above min. wages.
  • Mahila Kisan Sashaktikaran Pariyojana (MKSP) aims to improve present status of women in agriculture & to enhance opportunities for empowerment.

Empowering Elected Women Representatives (EWRs)

  • Objective is to empowering Elected Women Representatives (EWRs) & to help them assume leadership roles expected of them & guide their villages for more prosperous future.

Rashtriya Mahila Kosh (RMK)

  • RMK extends micro-credit to women in informal sector thru client friendly & in hassle-free manner w/o collateral for income generation activities.

Mahila Shakti Kendra (MSK)

  • To support rural women & provide them w/convergent support new scheme is approved namely MSK as sub scheme under Umbrella Scheme of Mission for Protection & Empowerment for Women to empower rural women thru community participation.
  • Community engagement thru College Students Volunteers is envisioned in 115 most backward dist. as part of MSK Block level initiatives.

National Repository of Information for Women (NARI)

  • It will provide citizens easy access to information on schemes & initiatives for women.

Beti Bachao Beti Padhao

  • BBBP was launched to address declining Child Sex Ratio.
  • It broadened & took under its ambit other concerns such as strict enforcement of PC & PNDT Act, provisions to motivate higher education for girls & related issues.

National Nutrition Mission (NNM)

  • Aim is to achieve improvement in nutritional status of children of 0 - 6 years & pregnant & lactating women in time bound manner w/defined targets.

Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY)

  • PMMVY is maternity benefit programme.
  • Supplementary, nutrition (ICDS) Rules, 2017 were notified to regulate entitlement of ‘nutrient dense food’ for every pregnant & lactating woman till 6 months to 6 years for 300 days in a year.
  • Swadhar Greh scheme caters to primary needs of women in difficult circumstances. Setting up of shelter, food, clothing, medical treatment & care are exclusively provided.
  • Entrepreneurship development programmes have enabled women to stand on their own feet.
  • Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana, Stand Up India, Start up India & SHGS under National Rural Livelihoods Mission have helped to make women financially secure & independent.
  • PM Jan Dhan Yojana has played critical role in financial inclusion of women.
  • Mahila Police Volunteers (MPVs) will prove to be effective alternative against local police for women.
  • Mahila-e-Haat is initiative to economically empower women thru financial inclusion. It is direct online digital marketing platform for women entrepreneurs/SHGs/NGOs.
  • Main objectives pf P. M. Ujjwala Yojana:

o Enhance status of women & caring for their health.

o Help to decrease air pollution due to use of fossil fuel.

o Lessening serious health risks related w/cooking based on fossil fuels.

o Reducing number of deaths due to unclean cooking fuels, which is almost 5 lakh year India.

o Preventing young children from acute respiratory illness caused due to indoor air pollution by burning fossil fuels.

  • Thru Sukanya Samridhhi Yojana & PM Jan Dhan Yojana banking services for unbanked are enabled.

Encouraging Entrepreneurship

  • 75 % of loans are given to women.
  • Over 47 lakhs SHGs are promoted under NRLM.
  • Skill Development is another key aspect for raising potential of our female workforce.
  • Under Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana large number of Indian youth have taken up industry relevant skill training.

Empowering Motherhood

  • To retain women in workforce, Maternity Benefit Act is amended to extend period of mandatory paid maternity leave for working women to 26 weeks.

Conclusion

  • Road to development can’t be travelled w/o health, education & empowerment of women who form almost 50 % of Indian Population.
  • Multi-directional organized approach to women development is sure to take country way beyond this path.

Developing a Successful School System

  • Goal of Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) is universal access to secondary education.

Enrolment Parameters

  • Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, campaign to get all children into elementary schooling has had considerable impact on participation.
  • Overall number of children attending schools for all age group has registered an increase.
  • 15 states have more girls than boys enrolled. Research shows that most imp. determinant of exclusion from secondary school is household poverty, w/clear relationship found b/w wealth & secondary school participation.

Declining Inequality in Educational Attainment

  • Inequality in educational attainment indicates under-utilisation & underdevelopment of potential in people who could have become more productive ‘human capital’ w/more education.
  • Policies for expansion of access to schooling like District Primary Education Programme & Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan have made substantial impact on getting more children into schools, though not necessarily on quality of provision.
  • States making considerable progress include Rajasthan w/decline of 0.21, Andhra Pradesh w/18% & MP w/22%
  • Gini coefficient is another way of marking difference b/w ‘backward’ northern states where inequality in educational attainment is considerable & southern states like Kerala which stands out as being least unequal.

Policy Efforts

  • Significant strides are made towards improving education in tribal areas & strengthen education sector in large parts of country including North-Eastern States.
  • Focus is to enhance financial support to education to impact positively on universalisation of elementary education in time bound manner & ensuring universal access to secondary education.
  • Teacher training program thru Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya National Mission on Teachers & Teaching, focuses on enhancing quality of education by providing better tools for teacher training. Innovation fund is one step in direction to integrate technology & leverage its potential for bringing secondary education to disadvantaged areas
  • Education outlay increases by 9.9 % w/focus on inducing technology-led reforms in higher & secondary education.

Conclusion

  • Inclusive development in education can’t be viewed & planned for on its own: successful school system w/full participation is dependent on policy level efforts.
  • Achievement of goals of inclusive development would require strong emphasis on preparing school going children w/catalytic skill & competencies.

Uploading the Right of the Child to Thrive

  • All Children need nurturing care to develop their full potential. It is vital for healthy growth & development, this promotes physical, emotional, social & cognitive development & protects them from worst effects of adversity.
  • It produces lifelong & inter-generational benefits for health, productivity & social cohesion.
  • Global Strategy for Women’s Children’s & Adolescents’ Health is at heart of Sustainable Development Goals.
  • Its vision is world where they realize their rights to health & well-being – both physical & mental, having social & economic opportunities, & to participate fully in shaping prosperous & sustainable societies.

The Cost of Inaction is High

  • Declaration of Child Rights was adopted by General Assembly on 20th Nov. , 1959.
  • Convention on Rights of Child (UNCRC, 1989) is 1st legally binding international instrument to incorporate full range of human rights-civil, cultural, economic, political & social rights w/I child rights.
  • Convention sets out these rights in 54 articles & 2 optional protocols.
  • It spells out those basic human rights that every child should have:

o Right to survival

o To develop to fullest

o To protection from harmful influences

o Abuse & exploitation

o To participate fully in family, cultural & social life

  • Being signatory of UNCRC (1992), India has globally recognized Child Rights as binding constraint.
  • After ratification of UNCRC in 1992, India changed its law on juvenile justice to ensure that every person below age of 18 years of age, who is in need of care of protection.
  • National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) ensuring all laws, policies, programs & administrative mechanisms in consonance w/Child Rights perspective, became Commission’s responsibility.
  • Right of Children to Free & Compulsory Education Act 2009
  • NCPCR Guidelines for Eliminating Corporal Punishment in School 2010.
  • Protection of Children Against Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act 2012.

Children Rights

  • Right to free & compulsory elementary education for all children b/w age group 6 - 14 years.
  • Right to be protected from any hazardous employment till age of 14 years.
  • Right to be protected from being abused & forced by economic necessity to enter occupation unsuited to their age or strength.
  • Right to equal opportunities & facilities to develop in healthy manner & in condition of freedom & dignity & guaranteed protection of childhood & youth against exploitation & against moral & material abandonment.
  • Legislation on child sexual abuse in form of POCSO Act 2012 is one of suggested measures of study.
  • NCPCR is monitoring body for corporal punishment in schools. It has come out w/complaint box for reporting abuse on its website to complain on line.
  • Credit availability is found to play pivotal role in switching children from labour market to schooling.
  • Constitution lays adequate emphasis regarding duties of States w/respect to Health Care.
  • Kerala has come up w/magnified value of CDE (Child Development Education) Index.
  • Other good performing states are Punjab, Tamil Nadu & Maharashtra.

Way Forward

  • National Health Policy should have clear & separate focus for children.
  • Sex Education to adolescent children is another imp. component which deserves much spotlight & attention.
  • RKSK (Rashtriya Kanya Swasthya Karyakram) can empower Adolescent girl in many ways.

Making India ‘Most Old Age Friendly’

  • In India population of senior citizens is 100 million-which is greater than population of UK, & will become 324 million by 2050-greater than population of USA.

Situation Analysis Quantitative

  • Study by National Commission on Population projects that senior citizens will comprise 9.3 % by 2016,10.7 % by 2021 & 12.40 % by 2026.
  • Proportion of elderly men & women who are physically mobile declines from abt 94 % in age group 60 - 64 years to abt 72 % for men & 63 - 65 % for women of age 80 or more.
  • Most common disability among aged persons tends to be loco-motor disability.

Stake Holder Analysis

  • There is steady rise in share of elderly population (aged 60 years or above) in total population over decades.
  • Among economically dependent elderly men 6 - 7 % were financially supported by their spouses, almost 85 % by their own children, 6 % by others.
  • Of elderly women, less than 20 % dependent on their children, 3 % on grand children & 6 % or more on others including non-relations.
  • Negligible number of women receive retirement benefits as compared to 15 % among men.
  • Apart from various other solutions Govt. & various NGOs are providing for elderly beneficiaries.

Quality of Life Index for Elderly

4 pillars of Index are:

  • Physical
  • Intellectual
  • Social connectedness
  • Spiritual

Ease of living will be proportional to avenues available for development of 4 domains of life after 60. s

Short-term Objective of having Index:

  • To publish white paper documenting areas. white paper will contain information abt odds stacked against senior citizens.
  • We can use such information to kick-start discussion abt lives of senior citizens.
  • To obtain better insights into demographics of senior citizens that can be utilized for future projects planned by Ministries.

Long Term Objective

  • Pioneer unusual, niche index-while such index already exists. It does not exist for micro-level that we are attempting to focus on specific to elderly.
  • Perform similar analyses for all 20 cities & come out w/comprehensive report abt ease of living for elderly.
  • Like CRISIL evaluates credit worthiness of companies we can evaluate elderly-worthiness of neighborhoods.
  • India which is ‘Most Age-Friendly Country of World’ is possibility.

Kerala has introduced age friendly villages followed by NIMHANS in Karnataka.

Other Important Notes

Swachh Shakti 2019: Rural Women Champions for Swachh Bharat

  • Swachh Shakti 2019, convention of Women Sarpanches was organized in Kurukshetra.
  • It aims to bring in to focus leadership role played by rural women in Swachh Bharat Mission.

National Virtual Library of India

  • It is one of components of National Mission on Libraries (NML). NML is initiative of Ministry of Culture to modernize & digitally link public libraries across country, launched in 2014.
  • Objective of NVLI is to facilitate creation of comprehensive database on digital resources of Indian on Information about India in open access environment.
  • Salient Features of NVLI are:

o Searching thru multilingual user interfaces

o Virtual learning environment

o E-Governance platform facilitating data analytics.

o Multilingual searching & retrieval on ontology/thesaurus based.

- Published/Last Modified on: March 28, 2019

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