C-Sections Spike in Telangana Reasons for Increase in C-Section (Download PDF)

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UNICEF found in its research paper that Telangana accounts for maximum number of C-section in the country. It accounts for 58 % deliveries through C-section in Telangana alone according to National Family Health Survey report of 2016. It was 75 % among deliveries at private-sector facilities.

Overview

  • According to the UNICEF study, it was found that C-section is gaining importance because families believe that a C-section delivery has taken a very good care of their daughters and daughters-in-law.

  • In order to have safe delivery couples prefer to have C- section deliveries.

  • The ideal rate for C-sections should be between 10 and 15 %, as per the World Health Organization (WHO).

  • In districts such as Warangal and Karimnagar, the rate at which C-section is done is as high as 80 % at private centres.

States with Highest Rate of C-Sections

States with Highest Rate of C-Sections

States with Highest Rate of C-Sections

Reasons for Increase in C-Section

  • Weak public health infrastructure.

  • Mushrooming private health sector.

  • Social prestige.

  • ‘Safe’ delivery.

  • Avoid labor pain.

  • Avoid risks to mothers.

  • Child to be born at auspicious hour.

Current Scenario

  • Out of the 19,570 babies born in government hospitals in Telangana in 2019 - 20,1, 144 were delivered through C-section surgeries.

  • The states of Telangana, Tripura and West Bengal have C-section rates of over 70 % in the private sector.

  • The rate of caesarean section was about 26 % in U. K. (in 2015) and about 32 % in the U. S. (in 2014) which is very low as compared with India.

  • According to the National Family Health Survey-4, around 80 % of C-section cases are reported in private hospitals.

  • Over 40 % of such cases in the public sector.

C-sections should be used only in extreme situations like

  • When the woman has severe pelvic contractions.
  • Complication during childbirth.
  • It can cause severe disability or death to mother as well as the child.

  • C-section can be a life-saving procedure for child delivery but it’s over utilization, without medical indication shows a grim picture.

  • It is riskier than uncomplicated ‘normal’ births that have been already proven.

  • Government has organized a two-day national consultation in collaboration with the UNICEF, in partnership with the government of Telangana and the Centre for Economic and Social Studies (CESS) to discuss about the rising trend of C-section in the country.

  • Invited recommendations

  • Inevitability to improve the quality of care.

  • Strengthening the health systems.

  • Monitoring of maternity services.

  • Bringing evidence to understand the determinants behind this trend in order to curb unnecessary C- sections during these two day meeting.

Desertification setting in across a quarter of India (Geography, Down to Earth)

  • According to the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), around 12 million ha of productive land across the world every year is degrading.

  • This is over 80 times the size of Delhi.

  • It is enough to grow 20 million tones of grain.

Desertification setting in across a quarter of India

Desertification Setting in Across a Quarter of India

Desertification setting in across a quarter of India

Overview

  • Desertification has also occurred throughout our history.

  • The pace at which it is happening now is very alarming.

  • It has been accelerated to 30 to 35 times the historical rate in the recent decades.

  • According to a report by Office of the European Union, drylands have increased by 0.35 % since 1950s worldwide.

  • Land degradation has increased by 1.16 million ha and 1.87 million ha respectively in just eight years from 2003 - 05 till 2011 - 13.

  • TERI’s conservative estimate shows land degradation costs $48.8 billion to the country’s exchequer annually.

  • This accounts for almost 2.08 % of India’s GDP in 2014 - 15.

  • The economic cost of forest degradation accounts for 55 % of the total loss.

Findings of Major Reports

  • According to the World Atlas of Desertification, overgrazing is responsible for 90 % of dryland degradation in Australia and 60 % in Africa.

  • Deforestation has caused 40 % dryland degradation in South America and Europe and 30 % in Asia.

  • Around one-quarter of the global land has been degraded in the last two decades causing troubles for some 1,500 million people who are dependent on this degrading land for their livelihood.

  • Recently, 14th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP14) to UNCCD was held which discusses ways to reverse land degradation.

  • According to Desertification and Land Degradation of Selected Districts of India, an atlas published by the Space Application Centre (SAC)

  • In Ahmedabad some 96.40 million ha or about 30 per cent of the country’s total area is undergoing degradation in 2018

  • Excessive mining in Jharkhand has triggered soil erosion and aggravated water scarcity in the state.

  • Continuous haphazard mining and expanding urbanization has taken a toll in Goa.

  • In Nagaland, shifting cultivation, deforestation and rising population have vanished tree cover and intensified soil erosion.

  • Out of 70 % of the country’s total land degraded, almost a quarter of India is under desertification.

  • There has been a consistent increase in the area under water erosion.

  • The growing demand for food, fodder, fuel and raw materials has increased the pressure on land and natural resources.

Reasons for Increase in Degradation

  • Deforestation.

  • Wetland drainage.

  • Overgrazing.

  • Unsustainable land use practices.

  • The expansion of agricultural, industrial and urban areas.

  • Governance failure.

  • Absence of knowledge.

  • Also Climate change, prolonged droughts, increasing incidences of floods, landslides and frost heaving has degraded productive lands.

Effects of Desertification

  • Drylands lose their ability to support plant life.

  • Lose their ability to offer ecosystem services.

  • Like as management of water systems.

  • Storage of carbon use in global warming.

UNCCD (United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification)

  • It is a legally binding international agreement.

  • It links environment and development to sustainable land management.

  • Defines the phenomenon as “land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities.

  • India hosted the recent session of COP14 as it

  • Houses 18 % of the world population.

  • 15 % of livestock on just 2.4 % of land.

  • Accounts for 195 million undernourished people.

  • It already has a quarter of the global hunger burden.

- Published/Last Modified on: February 24, 2020

Health, Down-to-Earth

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