Science & Technology: Point-Wise Current-Affairs/GS Articles 2020 (Including PIB)- Download PDF

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  • Jul 19, 2020
  • 1 Scientists Connect Lithium Abundance in Interstellar Space to a New Lithium Rich Giant [ Science/Technology ]

    Scientists Connect Lithium Abundance in Interstellar Space to a New Lithium Rich Giant

    • Hundreds of Li-rich giant stars have been discovered by researchers at Indian Institute of astrophysics (IIA).

    • The study indicates that Li is being produced in the stars and is responsible of

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  • 2 Bug Sniffer by ARI [ Science/Technology ]

    Bug Sniffer by ARI

    • A sensitive and low-cost sensor to detect bacteria has been developed by researchers at Agharkar Research Institute (ARI), Pune.

    • Agharkar Research Institute (ARI) is an autonomous institute under the Department of Science and Technology.

    • As low as 10 bacteri

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  • 3 Clues to Blazar Emission Mechanisms [ Science/Technology ]

    • A study on gamma-ray flux variability nature on different types of Blazars has been conducted by the researchers from Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), Bengaluru.

    • The processes happening close to the black hole are not visible through direct imaging.

    • This study can provi

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  • 4 Rapid Response Centre by DST to Combat COVID-19 [ Science/Technology ]

    Rapid Response Centre by DST to Combat COVID-19

    • A Centre for Augmenting WAR with COVID-19 Health Crisis (CAWACH) has been set up by Department of Science and Technology, Govt of India.

    • It has been set up at a cost of Rs. 56 crore.

    • In order to combat COVID-19 pandemic, the cent

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  • Jul 16, 2020
  • 1 AarogyaSetu [ Science/Technology ]

    AarogyaSetu

    • To fight against COVID-19, Government of India has launched AarogyaSetu mobile app.

    • This has been developed by public-private partnership and the app joins Digital India for health and well-being of people of India.

    • The app can help people assess their risk of catc

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  • 2 Bio-Suit by DRDO [ Science/Technology ]

    Bio-Suit by DRDO

    • As COVID-19 pandemic has grappled the world, the doctors, paramedics, nurses and other healthcare workers have been working relentlessly to treat patients of COVID-19.

    • This has put the lives of these frontline workers at risk.

    • To provide them a strong line of

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  • 3 JNCASR Develops Anti-Microbial Coating [ Science/Technology ]

    JNCASR Develops Anti-Microbial Coating

    • A one-step curable anti-microbial coating has been developed at Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research (JNCASR), Bengaluru.

    • A range of microbes including SARS-CoV-2 can be killed when this coating is applied on different

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  • Jul 10, 2020
  • 1 IHBT Scientists Develop New Sanitizer [ Science/Technology ]

    IHBT Scientists Develop New Sanitizer

    • Amidst COVID-19 outbreak, demand for sanitizers is increasing and in the wake of shortage of sanitizers market is flooded with counterfeit materials.

    • CSIR- IHBT (Institute of Himalayan Bio resource Technology) has come up with a new hand- s

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  • Jul 7, 2020
  • 1 National CrèChe Scheme [ Science/Technology, Govt. Schemes/Projects ]

    National Crèche Scheme

    • National Crèche Scheme is being implemented from 1 - 1-2017 for providing day care facilities to the children of working mothers.

    • The scheme covers children of the age group six months to six years.

    • It is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme under Ministry of Wo

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  • Jul 2, 2020
  • 1 NavIC: Features, Services, Mobile Compatibility, Geostationary and Geosynchronous Orbits [ Science/Technology, Environment/Ecology ]

    • IRNSS is an independent regional navigation satellite system designed to provide position information in the Indian region. The space segment consists of the IRNSS constellation of seven satellites, NavIC (Navigation with Indian Constellation) has three satellites are in suitabl

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  • 2 A Key Cellular Mechanism in Huntington Disease Unraveled [ Science/Technology ]

    A Key Cellular Mechanism in Huntington Disease Unraveled

    • A team of researchers at National Centre for Cell Science, Pune has been the HTT gene of fruit flies in detail.

    • HTT gene is responsible for Huntington disease.

    • Thus, a detailed study of HTT gene will help in gaining insi

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  • Jun 25, 2020
  • 1 CSIR Tops Research Institutional Ranking [ Science/Technology ]

    CSIR Tops Research Institutional Ranking

    • In the Nature Ranking Index-2020, CSIR (The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research) has been ranked first.

    • The institutions have been ranked on the basis of total research output that has been carried out from December 1,2018 to N

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  • Jun 18, 2020
  • 1 Fast Track Work on ODF [ Science/Technology ]

    Fast Track Work on ODF

    • Recently, a report tabled on progress of work on ODF + and ODF++ by Parliamentary Standing Committee on Urban Development in Lok Sabha.

    • The report says that the progress under phase-2 of ODF + and ODF++ has been slow.

    • The work on three protocols - ODF+,

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  • 2 Starch Based Materials Developed to Stop Blood Loss During Accidents [ Science/Technology ]

    Starch Based Materials Developed to Stop Blood Loss During Accidents

    • A starch based ‘hemostat’ material has been discovered which physically absorbs excess fluid resulting in concentration of natural clotting factors of blood.

    • The discovery has been done by scientists from Inst

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  • 3 Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System Indian Space Research Organization [ Science/Technology ]

    Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System

    • According to a recent report by department of Space in Parliament, NAVIC messaging system and receiver have been designed by ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization).

    • The system is currently being used by Indian National Centre for O

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  • Jun 12, 2020
  • 1 GSAT 30: ISRO’s First in 2020 GSAT 30 India’s Latest Telecommunication Satellite [ Science/Technology, Space/ISRO ]

    ISRO’s first mission in 2020 launched GSAT 30 which became India’s latest telecommunication satellite launched. It was launched from the French Guinea by the vehicle named Ariane 5 VA-251.

    • GSAT 30 is a high power communication satellite.

    • It will provide high quality television

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  • 2 Vyommitra: ISRO Humanoid [ Science/Technology, Space/ISRO ]

    ISRO has built a humanoid named Vyom Mitra (“Vyoma” meaning space and “mitra” meaning friend). Vyommitra will be sent to space before India sends its first manned mission in December, 2021. ISRO has planned to send two unmanned missions before the manned mission Gaganyan in 2022.

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  • Jun 11, 2020
  • 1 India May Buy NASAMS II from US: National Advanced Surface to Air Missile System-II [ Science/Technology ]

    The process of acquiring the National Advanced Surface to Air Missile System-II (NASAMS-II) from the US had been initiated in January 2019. NASAMS-II is being acquired to shield National Capital Region of Delhi’s airspace against aerial threats. This way Delhi’s defence shield wi

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  • Jun 9, 2020
  • 1 Underwater Loudspeaker Can Help Recover Coral Reefs [ Science/Technology, Environment/Ecology, Bills ]

    The coral reefs are the major victim of climate change. This important component of our ecosystem is worst effected by continuous rising GHGs and rise in temperatures.

    • A recent research has come out with an innovative way to improve survival of coral reefs.

    • In the study, it wa

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  • 2 CSE in Worlds Top Environment Think Tanks: Global Go to Think Tank Index-2019 [ Science/Technology, Down-to-Earth ]

    In Global Go to Think Tank Index-2019, Centre for Science and Environment was ranked 16 among top environment policy think tanks.

    • It was the 14th version of the report.

    • The report was released by the University of Pennsylvania, in January 2020.

    Overview

    • The think tank is ma

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  • 3 2020 Budget Allocation for Blue Economy and Quantum Computing [ Science/Technology, Economy, Down-to-Earth ]

    In her budget speech on February 1,2020, the Union Finance Minister of India talked about a framework for management, development and conservation of marine fishery resources.

    • She also talked about taking steps to generate employment in fish processing and marketing in coastal

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  • May 18, 2020
  • 1 Education and Technology for the Blind [ Education, Science/Technology ]

    Samagra Siksha-Education to children with special needs. A sea change in inclusive education.

    Educational Services for the Blind

    • 1887- A facility for the blind was launched in Amritsar.

    • 1944- Lt. Col Sir Chutha Mackenzie played a significant role in writing the GOI report on

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  • 2 Groupe Speciale Mobile Association (GSMA)-8 Criteria, Phishing and Copyright: Pegasus [ Science/Technology ]

    Groupe Speciale Mobile Association (GSMA) -8 Criteria

    One to 10 Gbps connections to end points in the field. One millisecond end-to-end round trip delay. (Perception of) 99.999 % availability. (Perception of) 100 % coverage.

    • 1000x bandwidth per unit area.

    • 10 to 100 x numbers o

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  • May 17, 2020
  • 1 World’s First Typhoid Vaccine and Innovation: China Rolls Out 5G Services [ Science/Technology ]

    Pakistan- first country in the world to introduce a new typhoid vaccine. To combat a drug-resistant strain of the potentially fatal disease in the Sindh province.

    Typhoid

    • An infection caused by the bacterium Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhi).

    • Bacterium lives in the intestines

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  • 2 National Strategic Plan (NSP) 2017-2025 and RNTCP (Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme) [ Science/Technology, Health ]

    Plan produced by the government of India (GoI). Sets out the government to eliminate TB in India. Describes the activities and interventions that the GoI will bring about.

    • Significant change in the incidence.

    • Prevalence and mortality from TB.

    RNTCP (Revised National Tubercul

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  • May 14, 2020
  • 1 Insect Pollination (Earliest Evidence): Problems, Issues and Solutions [ Science/Technology, Environment/Ecology ]

    First known instance of an insect. Pollinating a flower (99 million years ago).

    Types of Pollination

    Autogamy (Self-Pollination)

    • Pollen from the anthers of a flower is transferred to the stigma of the same flower.

    • Wheat, rice, pea etc are the examples.

    Geitonogamy

    • Pollen g

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  • 2 Classifications of Organism Based on Their Activity:Crepuscular, Nocturnal, Matutinal, Vespertine [ Science/Technology ]

    Of or during the day. Animals (diurnal) are active during the day.

    Crepuscular

    • Means of Twilight.

    • Crepuscular animals (active during twilight).

    Nocturnal

    • Done or active during the night.

    • Usually more vulnerable to predation.

    • Invisible (mice) during the night.

    Matutinal

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  • 3 Bio-Technology: Malnutrition, 28 Million Obese by 2030, A1 or A2 Milk, and Alzheimers Drug from Brown Algae [ Science/Technology ]

    World Obesity Federation Around 28 million children in India will be obese by the year 2030. The country would rank second in the world in terms of the high number of obese people.

    Malnutrition

    • Includes Under nutrition (wasting, stunting and underweight).

    • Inadequate vitamins o

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  • May 12, 2020
  • 1 Robotic Surgery Facility and Ring Timings for Mobiles, Landlines Fixed by TRAI [ Science/Technology, Economy ]

    Dedicated to the country by the Union Minister of Health. Safdarjung Hospital (SJH) - First Central Government hospital to start this facility for poor patients for free.

    Key Points

    • Advantage of providing minimally invasive surgery.

    • Reduces significantly the morbidity and mort

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  • May 5, 2020
  • 1 107th Indian Science Congress [ Science/Technology ]

    The 107th Indian science Congress was held on January 3 - 7,2020 at the University of Agricultural Sciences (UAS), Bengaluru. The theme of 107th ISC is “Science and Technology: Rural Development”. The summit witnessed participation of academians, policymakers, scientists, policym

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  • May 4, 2020
  • 1 IIT Madras Scientist to Improve Algorithms in Lattice Cryptography [ Science/Technology, Down-to-Earth ]

    Recently Swarna Jayanti Fellowship has been awarded to 14 researchers including Shweta Agarwal from Indian Institute of Technology, Madras. Her current work involves constructing advanced cryptographic protocols. These protocols are believed to be resistant to quantum computers.

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  • May 2, 2020
  • 1 Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Technology [ Science/Technology, Computers & ICT ]

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) uses electromagnetic field to automatically identify and track tags attached to objects. RFID has three components- RFID tag (smart label), an RFID reader and an antenna.

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  • Apr 24, 2020
  • 1 Arab Spring 2.0 [ Science/Technology, Economy ]

    Recent protests in Algeria and Sudan. Protesters and militaries are at a stand-off. A possibility that protests could move to other Arab countries as well.

    Arab Spring

    • Refers to a series of uprisings in the countries of the Arab region in 2011.

    • Protests in Tunisia in late 2010

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  • 2 U.S. Turkey Relations and US’s Action on H1B Visa, Bench and Switch Scam [ Science/Technology ]

    Strategic allies since the Cold War. Both are members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO). A military alliance was formed in 1949 to counter the Soviet influence. Due to Syrian war, Turkey has drifted away from the US over serious differences.

    U. S. Present Decision

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  • 3 U.S.-Russia: Helsinki Summit and U.S-Turkey Relations-F-35 Fighter Jet Programme [ Science/Technology ]

    Recent meeting of the U. S. President with his Russian counterpart Vladimir Putin at Helsinki in Finland. Helsinki is Finland’s southern capital. For more than 5 decades a tense cold war was fought between the blocs lead by the U. S. and Russia (Soviet Union). A suitable opportun

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  • Apr 20, 2020
  • 1 India in US’s STA-1 List-Import of Dual-Use Tech and Strategic Trade Authorization [ Science/Technology ]

    High-technology dual exports to India has been eased by the US after 1½ years of negotiations. India has been granted exemption under the Strategic Trade Authorisation-1 list.

    India-US Defense Ties

    • The civil nuclear deal was signed between the two countries in 2008.

    • Gaining ac

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  • Apr 18, 2020
  • 1 BIMSTEC Summit 2018-Kathmandu Declaration [ Science/Technology ]

    Fourth BIMSTEC Summit was concluded recently in Kathmandu, Nepal. Remarkable progress in reforming the structural and procedural framework although concerns remain there. BIMSTEC consists of India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Bhutan and Nepal. Drafting a charter for

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  • Apr 11, 2020
  • 1 New Bacteria Will Help Fight Climate Change and IIT to Set up Research Centre in Data Science [ Science/Technology, Environment/Ecology, Down-to-Earth ]

    A new species of soil bacteria that is capable of breaking down organic matter has been discovered by researchers at Cornell University.

    • The bacteria can degrade even cancer causing chemicals that are released on burning of coal, gas, oil and refuse.

    Overview

    • Bacterium Parabur

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  • Apr 8, 2020
  • 1 AYUSH: Sowa-Rigpa - Practiced Locations, Infrastructure in India, Origin, Training and Education, National Institute [ Education, Science/Technology, Health, Agriculture/Agro Industries ]

    SOWA-RIGPA

    • Ministry of Ayush.

    • One of the oldest, living and well documented medical tradition of the world.

    • Derived from Bhoti language which means ‘Knowledge of Healing’.

    • Commonly known as Amchi system of medicine.

    • Practice of Sowa-Rigpa is similar to “Ayurveda”.

    Practice

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  • 2 Global Seed Vault: Global Crop Diversity Trust, Need, Storage, Permafrost, Threat [ Science/Technology ]

    Global Seed Vault or Svalbard Global Seed Vault

    • It is a secure seed bank.

    • Backup of the backups.

    • Lies 360 feet inside of the 1,500-foot Plataberget mountain in Nordenskiöld Land on the island of Spitsbergen in Svalbard, Norway.

    • Svalbard is a Norwegian archipelago in the Arcti

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  • 3 Arsenic Contamination: Forms, Uses, Threats, Arsenicosis, Arsenic Levels, Biomarkers [ Science/Technology, Environment/Ecology ]

    Arsenic

    • A chemical element with the symbol As and atomic number 33 atomic mass of 74.92.

    • It is a metalloid.

    • Occurs in many minerals usually in combination with sulfur and metals.

    • Toxic to almost all life forms.

    • Naturally present at high levels in the groundwater or a natural

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  • Mar 28, 2020
  • 1 Malware Infection Kundankulam Nuclear Plant [ Science/Technology, Defense ]

    Nuclear installations and sites have been a prime target of both espionage and sabotage operations. Around 23 cyber incidents at nuclear facilities have been enlisted by NTI (Nuclear Threat Initiative) over the last three decades.

    Multitude of Threat Actors and Vectors

    • Software

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  • Mar 20, 2020
  • 1 Dark Net, DDOS Attack, National Common Mobility Card (NCMC) and Earth BioGenome Project [ Science/Technology ]

    A computer network with restricted access. Used chiefly for illegal peer-to-peer file sharing. Also refers to networks that are not indexed by search engines such as Google, Yahoo or Bing. Only available to a select group of people and not to the general internet public. Only acc

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  • 2 Sunspots, Solar Tsunami and Lifi [ Science/Technology ]

    Temporary phenomena on the Sun’s photosphere. Appear as spots darker than the surrounding areas. Regions of reduced surface temperature. Caused by concentrations of magnetic field flux that inhibits convection. Usually appear in pairs of opposite magnetic polarity.

    • Number varie

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  • 3 EU Ruling on Gene Editing and IT and Computers [ Science/Technology ]

    The European Court of Justice. Organisms obtained by mutagenesis are also GMOs. Within the meaning of the GMO Directive.

    Gene Editing

    • Editing of the organism’s native genome.

    • CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) a gene editing technology.

    • CRISPR-

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  • 4 Tribolelectric Nanogenerators - Wireless Transmission of Electrical Energy and MediPix Technology [ Science/Technology ]

    First time wireless transmission of electrical energy has been achieved. Key components-nanowires. Nanogenerator-A small electronic chip that harvests mechanical energy and converts it into electrical energy.

    Triboelectric effect- a type of contact electrification.

    Applications

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  • 5 National Policy on Electronics 2019 and 3D Printed Skin [ Science/Technology ]

    Approval given by the Union government. Replaces the National Policy of Electronics 2012 (NPE 2012). Proposed by the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY). Aims to position India as a global hub for Electronics System Design and Manufacturing (ESDM). Formulat

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  • Mar 19, 2020
  • 1 Optical Tweezers, Chirped Pulse Amplification and Thermal Battery Plant [ Science/Technology ]

    Optical tweezers grab particles, atoms, viruses and other living cells with their laser beam fingers. Invented by Arthur Ashkin. Tool allowed Ashkin to realise an old dream of science fiction – using the radiation pressure of light to move physical objects. Ashkin succeeded in ge

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  • 2 NETRA, Agni V and Hyperloop Technology [ Science/Technology ]

    First indigenously built Airborne Early Warning and Control System (AEW&CS). Developed by DRDO. A light-weight autonomous UAV for long range surveillance and reconnaissance operations. Radar system is also mounted on Embraer aircraft which gives 240-degree coverage of airspace. H

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  • 3 BOLD-QIT, INS Arihant and Digital Sky Platform [ Science/Technology ]

    BOLD-QIT (Border Electronically Dominated QRT Interception Technique). Under CIBMS (Comprehensive Integrated Border Management system). On India-Bangladesh border in Assam will be launched soon. Project to install technical systems under the CIBMS.

    • Enables Border Security Force

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  • 4 International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and APSARA – U [ Science/Technology ]

    The world’s largest experimental fusion facility is in France. Most complex science project in human history started in 2010. Use of hydrogen fusion, controlled by superconducting magnets, to produce massive heat energy. Nuclear fusion facility- An international cooperation among

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  • 5 YUVIKA and PM-STIAC [ Science/Technology ]

    A special programme residential training program for School Children called ―Young Scientist Programme-YUvaVIgyaniKAryakram. Primarily aimed at imparting basic knowledge on Space Technology, Space Science and Space Applications to the younger ones. Intent of arousing their intere

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  • 6 Liquid Water Lake in Mars and Unnati: Primary Objectives [ Science/Technology ]

    Expected to facilitate a better understanding on the likely presence of life on Mars. A lake stretching for 20-km. An 11-member Italian team of researchers surveyed the Planum Australe region, or the southern polar plains of Mars. Use of Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ion

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  • 7 Vikas Engine and Oumuamua Comet Discovery [ Science/Technology ]

    A family of liquid fuelled rocket engines. Powers India’s launch vehicles PSLV and GSLV. Improving the payload capability of PSLV, GSLV and GSLV Mk-III launch vehicles. Used in second stage of PSLV which consists of four stages in its operation (Solid-Liquid-Solid-Liquid) and in

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  • Mar 17, 2020
  • 1 First Hyper Spectral Imaging Satellite and Draft Space Activities Bill, 2017 [ Science/Technology ]

    HysIS is an earth observation satellite, weighing about 380 kg. Configured around ISRO’s Mini Satellite-2 (IMS-2) bus. Aim is to study the earth’s surface in the visible, near infrared and shortwave infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Mission life of about 5 years.

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