Computer & Main Parts of Computer – Terminology of Computers

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Computer Terminology

  • JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) is an ISO/IEC group of experts that develops and maintains standards for a suite of compression algorithms for computer image files.

  • Kernel It is the fundamental part of a program, such as an operating system, that resides in memory at all times.

  • Key Field - A unique field in a record used to distinguish one record from another.

  • Label - One or more characters used to Identify a statement and instruction or a data field in a computer program.

  • Landscape - A printer feature, generally controlled by software, which rotates the output image by 90- to print across the length rather than the width of the paper.

  • Link - A communication path between two nodes or channel.

  • Linux – A type of open source software. When combined with other components, Linux serves as an increasingly popular operating system that competes with Microsoft Windows.

  • Loop A sequence of instructions that is executed repeatedly until a terminal condition occurs.

  • Megahertz (Mhz) – A measurement used to identify the speed of the central processing unit. One

  • Memory – The part of a computer that stores information.

  • Menu – A list of choices shown on the display screen.

  • Merge Combining two or more files into a single file.

  • Microprocessor A complete Central Processing Unit (CPU) contained on a single silicon chip.

  • MIDI Stands for Music Instrument Digital Interface. It allows a computer to store and replay a musical instrument’s output.

  • Minimize A term used in a GUI operating system that uses windows. It refers to reducing a window to an icon, or a label at the bottom of the screen, allowing another window to be viewed.

  • MIPS – An acronym derived from Millions of Instruction Per Second (MIPS) It is used to measure the speed of a processor.

  • Morphing The transformation of one image into another image.

  • MS-DOS an early operating system developed by Microsoft Corporation (Microsoft Disc Operating System).

  • Multitasking can simultaneously work with several programs or interrelated tasks that share memories, codes, buffers and files.

  • Multithreading It is a facility available in an operating system that allows multiple functions from the same application packages.

  • Multiuser The term describing the capability of a computer system to be operated at more than one terminal at the same llf 11°

  • Multiplexer It is a device That combines multiple input signals into an aggregate signal for transmission.

  • Notebook computer – A portable computer. Also known as a laptop computer.

  • Object – Refers to a particular instance of a class where the object can be a combination of variables, functions, and data structures.

  • Operating system (OS) - Software that manages the internal functions and controls the operations of a computer.

  • Open Source Software (OSS) – Free Open Source Software (FOSS), also called just Open Source or Free Software, is licensed to be free to use, modify, and distribute.

  • Optical character reader (OCR) -A device that can scan text from hard copy and enter it automatically

  • into a computer for storage or editing. Also called an optical scanner.

  • Password – A user’s secret identification code, required to access stored material.

  • Patch – A patch is a piece of software designed to update a computer program or its supporting data, to fix or improve it.

  • Piracy – Unauthorized copying of some purchased software.

  • Pixel – The pixel is the basic unit of programmable color on a computer display or in a computer image.

  • Port – It to the female part of connection. Computer ports have many uses, to connect a monitor, webcam, speakers, or other peripheral devices

  • Portrait – It is a mode in which the printer orients content for reading across the shorter length (the width) of the sheet of paper.

  • Plug-and-play – The ability to plug in a peripheral and have it work without difficulty.

  • Primary Key - A primary key is a field in a table which is unique and enables you to identify every record in that table.

  • Program – An established sequence of instructions that tells a computer what to do. The term program means the same as software.

  • Pseudocode – Pseudocode is an artificial and informal language that helps programmers develop algorithms.

  • Push technology – A process that allows a user to obtain automatic delivery of specified information from the Internet to the user’s computer—for example, stock market quotes, weather forecasts, and sports scores.

  • Query – A query is a request for information from a database.

  • Queue – A queue is an example of a linear data structure, or more abstractly a sequential collection.

  • Record - A record (also called struct or compound data) is a basic data structure. A record is a collection of fields, possibly of different data types, typically in fixed number and sequence

  • Response time – The time a computer takes to execute a command.

  • Retrieve – To call up information from memory or storage so that it can be processed in some way.

  • Rich Text Format (RTF) – RTF is a file format that lets you exchange text files between different word processors in different operating systems.

  • Routing – Routing is the process of selecting a path for traffic in a network, or between or across multiple networks.

  • Scanner – A scanner is a device that captures images from photographic prints, posters, magazine pages, and similar sources for computer editing and display.

  • Scroll – To move information horizontally or vertically on a display screen so that one can see parts of a

  • document that is too wide or too deep to fit entirely on one screen.

  • Search engine – A free program that helps Web users locate data by means of a keyword or concept.

  • Sector - A sector is a subdivision of a track on a magnetic disk or optical disc.

  • Server – A computer that delivers data to other computers (clients) linked on the same network.

  • Shareware – Software that usually may be downloaded and used initially without charge.

  • Socket – A network socket is an endpoint of a connection in a computer network.

  • Swapping – A process can be swapped temporarily out of memory to a backing store, and then brought back into memory for continued execution

  • Synchronisation – Synchronization is the coordination of events to operate a system in unison.

  • Telecommunications – The process of sending and receiving information by means of telephones, satellites, and other devices.

  • Teleconferencing - Conducting a conference by using computers, video, and telecommunications to share sound and images with others at remote sites.

  • Telnet – A protocol that allows a computer to connect with a host computer on the Internet.

  • Template – Refers to a sample document that has already some details in place

  • Terminal – Any device that can transmit or receive electronic information.

  • Text – Broadly speaking, the material displayed on a screen or printed on paper.

  • Time Sharing or Multitasking – Time sharing is a technique which enables many people, located at various terminals, to use a particular computer system at the same time.

  • Topology – Topology is the arrangement of the various elements (links, nodes, etc.) of a computer network.

  • Touchpad – The device on a laptop computer that takes the place of a mouse.

  • Universal Serial Bus (USB) – A common standard for connecting multiple peripherals to a computer as needed.

  • Upload – Uploading is the transmission of a file from one computer system to another, usually larger computer system.

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