Model Paper (GATE-2021) : C3, Humanities and Social Sciences-Linguistics

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Q1. to Q15. are MCQ where only one answer is correct. Each question carries one mark.

Q. 1 Look at the picture a-d match them with the parameter in i-iv for each pair of signs:

The Look at the Picture A-D

(a) a-ii, b-I, c-iii, d-iv

(b) a-iii, b-ii, c-I, d-iv

(c) a-i, b-iv, c-iii, d-ii

(d) a-iv, b-iii, c-ii, d-i

Q. 2 Two languages are deemed to be related members of a single language family if

(a) At least of the basic vocabulary is common to the two languages.

(b) A majority of the speech community of the languages share the same genealogy.

(c) The Languages are spoken in geographically contiguous regions.

(d) The languages descend from a common language ancestor by process of change.

Q. 3 Sex differences in human biology that are correlated with language include

(a) The cortex and the mobility of the tongue

(b) The diaphragm and the larynx

(c) The articulators and the larynx.

(d) The velum and the resonant cavities.

Q. 4 The number of displays in an animal՚s repertoire is typically

(a) About 3

(b) About 3,000

(c) About 30

(d) About 300

Q. 5 The basic written units in a logographic writing system correspond to

(a) Concepts

(b) Morphemes

(c) Syllables

(d) Compounds

Q. 6 Sign Language is

(a) A human Language system with similar grammatical properties as spoken languages

(b) A way of expressing language by substituting gestures for spoken words.

(c) A system of pantomime like gestural communication to convey thoughts

(d) An expression of the human language in tis precursor form

Q. 7 Mayan Hieroglyphics are understood to be

(a) A combination syllabic writing with symbols for religious concepts

(b) A combination of ideographic and phonetic symbols.

(c) A phonological writing system

(d) A pictographic writing system.

Q. 8 Human writing systems date from the time of

(a) Paninian grammar at around B. C.

(b) Animal domestication and pottery, around 8000 B. C.

(c) Bronze Age, Around 3000 B. C.

(d) Cro-Magnon fossils around 35,000 B. C

Q. 9 Young Children create plurals like “childs” and “sheeps” in a phenomenon called

(a) Over-generalization

(b) Over-extension

(c) Error Propagation

(d) Analogical Reasoning

Q. 10 Which of the following sentences expresses a direct speech act using a performative verb?

(a) I am warning you not to take out the garbage!

(b) I promise to take out the garbage.

(c) I want to know who took out the garbage

(d) I need to take the garbage out

Q. 11 From the deep structure (basic) sentences Marie looked for radium in a makeshift lab which one of the following cannot be a transformational equivalent?

(a) It was radium that Marie looked for in a makeshift lab

(b) Marie searched for radium in a makeshift lab.

(c) Radium was looked for in a makeshift lab by Marie

(d) Marie was looking for radium in a makeshift lab

Q. 12 Consider the pair of sentences, “Several citizens approached the judge together. They seemed happy with each other.” What is the relation between “several citizens” and “each other” ?

(a) Reciprocity

(b) Binding Condition A

(c) Binding Condition B

(d) no relation

Q. 13 Match the pairs of words below, to a lexical relation.

The Pairs of Words below, to a Lexical Relation
WordsLexical Relation
a.Bear – Barei.Graded opposites
c.Hot-coldiii.Complementary Opposites
d.Occupied - vacantivSynonymy

(a) a-ii, b-I, c-I, d-ii

(b) a-iv, b-ii, c-iii, d-i

(c) a-ii, b-iv, c-I, d-iii

(d) a-I, b-iii, c-ii, d-i

Q 14 We will say parse tree is larger than if has more nodes and edges than . Suppose for the same sentence S, we construct a constituent phrase structure parse tree denoted by PT and a dependency-based parse tree . Then which of the following will be true most of the time:

(a) Both will be the same size.

(b) DT is larger than PT.

(c) PT is larger than DT.

(d) One may larger than the other roughly half the time so cannot say

Q. 15 The sentence “The old man the boat” is an example of

(a) Garden Path sentence

(b) ungrammatical Sentence

(c) Uninterpretable sentence

(d) Ambiguous Sentence

Q16. to Q20. are MSQ type, where one or more answers are correct. Each question carries one marks.

Q. 16 Which statement below holds for non-projective dependency parse trees?

(a) They are much more likely when the language has relatively free word order (e. g. , many Indian Languages) .

(b) they are much more likely when the language has largely fixed word order (e. g. English)

(c) Non-projective trees can occur equally often – that is word order does not matter.

(d) Non-Projective trees are very rate in both fixed and relatively free word order languages.

Q. 17 Which of the following does not play a significant role in the child՚s learning of languages?

(a) Statistical estimation

(b) Gricean Maxims

(c) Phrase Structure

(d) Explicit instruction

Q. 18 A language X permits a maximum of two onset consonants, a nucleus with a long or a short vowel, and a single coda consonant which must be a sonorant. Choose the word/s conforming to the phonotactics of this language.





Q. 19 In the interpretation of “I՚ll be there at six O՚clock” as a threat, which of the following cannot be felicity conditions?

(a) I am in the habit of being punctual

(b) You do not want me to be there at six O՚clock.

(c) You must make sure your watch is correct

(d) I am capable of being there at six O՚clock.

Q. 20 Which of the following is/are identifiably generative grammar (s) ?

(a) Lexical Functional Grammar

(b) Relational Grammar

(c) Paninian Grammar

(d) Finite State Grammar

Q21. to 30. are MCQ type, where only one answer is correct. Each question carries two marks.

Q. 21 Match the Phonological rule in a-d to the example in i-iv:

The Phonological Rule in A-D to the Example
Phonological RuleExample
a./________ i.
b. /________ ii.
c. / ________ iii.
d. / ________ iv.





Q. 22 Identify the semantic roles of the seven underlined NPs in the sentence below in order. With the new golf club, Tiger Woods whacked the ball form the woods to the grassy area near the hole and he suddenly felt invincible.

(a) Instrument, agent, theme, source, goal, location, experiencer

(b) Instrument, experiencer, theme, goal, source, location, agent

(c) Agent, experiencer, goal, instrument, location, source, theme

(d) Theme, source, location, instrument, goal, experiencer, agent

Q. 23 Study the following tree and match the pairs of nodes in a-d to the most appropriate structural relationship that is provided in i-iv

The Following Pairs of Nodes
The Following Tree and Match the Pairs of Nodes
Node PairsStructural Relationships

(a) a-ii, b-ii, c-I, d-iv

(b) a-ii, b-I, c-iv, d-iii

(c) a-I, b-iv, c-iii, d-ii

(d) a-iv, b-iii, c-ii, d-i

Q. 24 Match the pairs of sentences in a-d with appropriate semantic relation in i-iv.

The Pairs of Sentences in A-D with Appropriate Semantic Relation
Sentence PairSemantic Relation
a.Pierre Curie is Marie Curie՚s Husband

Marie Curie is Child

b.Vera is an only child

Olga is Vera՚s sister

c.My cousin Raghav teaches at a local college

My cousin Raghav is a teacher

d.My pet frog likes the taste of chocolate fudge

My pet frog finds chocolate fudge tasty


(a) a-iv, b-ii, c-iii, d-i

(b) a-iii, b-I, c-iv, d-ii

(c) a-ii, b-iv, c-I, d-iii

(d) a-I, b-iii, c-ii, d-iv

Q. 25 Match the dialogues between speakers M and N given in a-d with the most appropriate.

Gricean Maxim in i-iv that is violated.

Gricean Maxim in I-IV That is Violated
DialogueGricean Maxim
a.M: Sita and Mohan leaving tomorrow.

N: l՚ll Miss Sita.

i.Maxim of Quality
b.M: Let՚s get the children something.

N: OK, but not I-C-E-R-E-A-M [spelling it out]

ii.Maxim of Quantity
c.M: I might win the lottery

N: Yes, and pigs might fly.

iii.Maxim of Relevance
d.M: where՚s the sandwich?

N: The dog looks happy

iv.Maxim of Manner

(a) a-iii, b-ii, c-iv, d-i

(b) a-ii, b-iv, c-I, d-ii

(c) a-iv, b-I, c-iii, d-ii

(d) a-I, b-iii, c-ii, d-iv

Q. 26 Match the sentences in with the logical form in i-iv that encodes them.

Sentences in a A-D with the Logical Form in I-IV
SentenceLogical Form
a.Everyone is either sincere or happyi.
b.Not everyone is happy and sincereii.
c.Everyone is happy and sincereiii.
d.Everyone is not happy and sincereiv.

(a) a-iv, b-iii, c-ii, d-i

(b) a-ii, b-i, c-iv, d-iii

(c) a-iii, b-iv, c-i, d-ii

(d) a-i, b-ii, c-iii, d-iv

Q. 27 Match the semantic change in a-h with the example in i-viii as appropriate.

The Semantic Change with the Example in I-VIII
Semantic ChangeExample
a.Metaphori.China: Name of a country > Porcelain
b.Metonymyii.Head: part of the body > person
c.Synecdocheiii.Mouse: animal > computer mouse
d.Narrowingiv.Dust: to clean dust > to add a dusting
e.Wideningv.Xerox: photocopier brand > photocopiers
f.Pejorationvi.Skyline: horizon > Skyscraper
g.Auto Antonymyvii.Sophisticated: unnatural > discriminating
h.AmeliorationviiiVillain: inhabitant of a village > scoundrel

(a) a-iii, b-I, c-ii, d-vi, e-v, f-iv, g-viii, h-vii

(b) a-I, b-ii, d-viii, e-vii, f-iv, g-vi, h-v

(c) a-iv, b-v, c-I, d-iii, e-ii, f-vi, g-vii, h-viii

(d) a-ii, b-iii, c-vii, d-v, e-iv, f-viii, g-I, h-vi

Q. 28 Match the language example in a-d to its morphological typology in i-iv.

The Language Example in A-D to Its Morphological Typology
Language ExampleMorphological Type
a.Taya na none na yalewa past hit the child the girl the girl hit the childi.Fusional
b.Te-meyne – levte - peft - erken 1-sg -great head ache - imperfective

I have a fierce headache

c.Agricul-a puell-as vid its farmer – Nom girl -ACC saw the farmer saw the girliii.Agglutinative

I-past for some time eat repeatedly

I kept on eating


(a) a-iv, b-iii, c-I, d-ii

(b) a-I, bii, c-iv, d-iii

(c) a-iii, b-iv, c-ii, d-i

(d) a-ii, b-I, c-iii, d-iv

Q. 29 Match the sounds in a-d with the air stream mechanism in i-iv

Match the Sounds in A-D with the Air Stream Mechanism
PhoneAirstream Mechanism
a.i.Glottalic Ingressive
b.ii.Pulmonic Ingressive
c.iii.Velaric Ingressive
d.iv.Glottalic egresive

(a) a-I, b-ii, c-iii, d-iv

(b) a-iv, b-iii, c-I, d-ii

(c) a-iii, b-iv, c-ii, d-i

(d) a-ii, b-I, c-iv, d-iii

Q-30 Match the morpheme type in a-f with the examples given in i-vi

Match the Morpheme Type
PhoneAirstream Mechanism
a.Bound rooti.Limit
b.Free rootii.Bird՚seye

(a) a-iii, b-iv, c-i, d-ii, e-iv, f-ii

(b) a-v, b-ii, c-iii, d-vi, e-iv, f-ii

(c) a-iv, b-iii, c-ii, d-i, e-v, f-iv

(d) a-iii, b-I, c-vi, d-iv, e-ii, f-v

Q31. to Q40. are MSQ type, where one or more answers are correct. Each question carries one marks.

Q-31 Which of the following words most appropriately complete this sentence?

Lenneberg observed that it was not unusual for a young child who has suffered a degree of brain damage to make a complete recovery several months later. He suggested that this was because of ________, and the task of the damaged ________ was taken over by ________ areas that have not-yet become ________ _ for other functions in a property called ________.

(a) Prepubescence/tissue/neighboring/useful/development

(b) Youth/neurons/neuronal/adapted/growth

(c) Biology/area/other/developed/adaptation

(d) Age/neural structures/functionally similar/specialized/plasticity

Q. 32 Match the utterances in a-d to the illocutionary force in i-iv

The Utterances in A-D to the Illocutionary Force in I-IV
UtteranceIllocutionary force
a.It is cold in herei.order
b.The snakes can crawl inii.Request
c.Could you close the door?iii.Warn
d.Close the door!iv.Complain

(a) a-iv, b-iii, c-ii, d-i

(b) a-iii, b-iv, c-I, d-ii

(c) a-I, b-ii, c-iv, d-iii

(d) a-ii, b-i, c-iii, d-iv

Q. 33 By one year of age, infants begin to devote greater attention to ________ and less attention to ________.

(a) Word learning/native language sounds

(b) Native language sounds/foreign language sounds

(c) Phonotactics/learning native language phonemes

(d) Foreign language sounds/native language sounds

Q. 34 Which of the statements follows from the critical period hypothesis?

(a) Environmental influences will cause a child to enter a critical period of development.

(b) A chid՚s development will progress along a predictable trajectory regardless of environmental influences.

(c) Imprinting happens in ducklings during the critical period regarding environmental stimuli.

(d) An innately endowed language acquisition device enables language learning.

Q. 35 The auditory percepts of high and low pitch, and softness and loudness of voice arises from which of the following acoustic properties?

(a) Wavelength of the source

(b) Frequency of vocal fold vibrations

(c) Glottal pulse rate

(d) Amplitude of the sound wave

Q. 36 Which of the following sentences helps us test the constituency of eat the trees in the sentence the Jabberwock could eat the trees?

(a) What could the Jabberwock do? Eat the trees!

(b) Eat the trees the Jabberwock certainly could!

(c) The Jabberwock could do it.

(d) The Jabberwock could eat them

Q. 37 Which Event Related Potential component or components is/are considered indicative of the integration of word meaning with the wider semantic context and it thus sensitive to semantic anomalies?





Q. 38 Multilingualism is the ability to speak and understand multiple languages. Many Indians are multilingual. In contrast, many other societies are monolingual. The following statements pertain to multilingualism and cognition.

a. Multilingualism leads to extra neural connections in the brain compared to monolingualism.

b. Multi-lingualism builds greater degrees of cognitive reserve. That is onset of different kinds of neuro-generative disorders is delayed or prevented in individuals who are multilingual compared to those who are monolingual.

c. For very young children who are learning a language for the first time, a multilingual environment can delay the learning of language.

(a) None of a, b, c is true

(b) a, c is true

(c) b, c is true

(d) b is true

Q. 39 Data: Use the data below from Kinyambo (Bantu language spoken in Tanzania) and answer the question

i. Nakajuna ‘I helped’

ii. Brakoma ‘they will tie’

iii. Nitukoma ‘we are tying’

iv. Narajuma ‘I will help’

v. Nituchumba ‘we are cooking’

vi. Nimujuna ‘you (pl.) are helping’

vii. orasoma ‘you (sg.) will read’

viii. baratura ‘they will put down’

ix. Nimukichumba ‘you (pl.) are cooking it’

x. bakakinaga ‘they lost it’

xi. arakinaga ‘she will lose it’

xii. nibatura ‘they are putting down’

Which of the following Kinyambo sentences are grammatical?

(a) Orakichumba

(b) Murakoma

(c) Akichumba

(d) nibarajuna

Q. 40 Data: Use the data below from Kinyambo (Bantu language spoken in Tanzania) and answer the question

i. Nakajuna ‘I helped’

ii. Brakoma ‘they will tie’

iii. Nitukoma ‘we are tying’

iv. Narajuma ‘I will help’

v. Nituchumba ‘we are cooking’

vi. Nimujuna ‘you (pl.) are helping’

vii. orasoma ‘you (sg.) will read’

viii. baratura ‘they will put down’

ix. Nimukichumba ‘you (pl.) are cooking it’

x. bakakinaga ‘they lost it’

xi. arakinaga ‘she will lose it’

xii. nibatura ‘they are putting down’

Which of the following orders of grammatical morphemes is legitimate in Kinyambo?

(a) Subject-Verb

(b) Object-Verb

(c) Tense-Subject-Aspect

(d) Aspect-Subject-Tense