GATE Philosophy MSQs Important Questions with Choice Paper

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Q 1. Which of the following options are true with regard to Sankhya Darshana?

(1) The first evolute of Prakriti is the Ahamkara, from which comes the Mahat.

(2) The word Sankhya means both ‘number’ and ‘right/complete knowledge’ in Sanskrit.

(3) Sankhya Darshana believes there is one, non-dual consciousness underlying the whole of creation.

(4) Sankhya Darshana believes in Satkaryavada.

Topic: Classical Indian Philosophy

Subtopic: Orthodox Systems: Sankhya

Sub-subtopic: Purusha/Prakriti/Satkaryavada

Q 2. With reference to the Chitta Bhumis mentioned by Vyasa in his commentary to the Yoga Sutras, identify the true statements:

(1) The Chitta Bhumis are Kshipta, Mudha, Vikshipta, Ekagra and Niruddha.

(2) Vikshipta, Ekagra and Niruddha are considered to be conducive to the attainment of Yoga.

(3) Vikshipta is a state where the mind is excessively lethargic and dull – where Tamas is dominant.

(4) Ekagra means one-pointedness and is a state where there is perfect manifestation of Sattva in the Chitta (mind) .

Topic: Classical Indian Philosophy

Subtopic: Orthodox Systems: Yoga

Sub-subtopic: Chitta

Q 3. Which of the following statements is true with regard to the epistemology of Nyaya Darshana?

(1) The Pramanas accepted by the Naiyayikas are Pratyaksha, Anumana, Upamana and Shabda.

(2) In Anumana, Paksha refers to the major term – that which is inferred.

(3) Pratyaksha is of two kinds: Nirvikalpa and Savikalpa.

(4) Samanyalakshana is intuitive omniscience which can be acquired through meditation.

Topic: Classical Indian Philosophy

Subtopic: Orthodox Systems: Nyaya

Sub-subtopic: Pramanas

Q 4. Identify the incorrect statements with respect to the Madhyamika school of Buddhism:

(1) Vasubandhu and Dignaga were some of the prominent Madhyamikas.

(2) The Madhyamikas believe in the unreality of the physical, external world and hold that the mind alone is real.

(3) The Madhyamikas believe in the existence of a transcendental reality that is free from change.

(4) Shunyavada is a key doctrine of the Madhyamika school.

Topic: Classical Indian Philosophy

Subtopic: Heterodox Systems: Buddhism

Sub-subtopic: Madhyamika

Q 5. Which of the following are true with regard to the concept of Pancha Kosha?

(1) The Pancha Kosha model divides the mind (Manas) into five sheaths.

(2) The Pancha Kosha theory is found in the Taittiriya Upanishad.

(3) The Vijnanamaya Kosha is the sheath of the intellect and bliss.

(4) In the order in which they are described, each succeeding sheath is considered to be subtler than the preceding one.

Topic: Classical Indian Philosophy

Subtopic: Upanishads, Bhagavadgita, and Dharmashastras

Sub-subtopic: Panca-kosa

Q 6. Which of the following are not Vivekananda՚s views on religion?

(1) Only when we agree to have common rituals and mythology will the ideal of universal religion be achieved.

(2) Religion is the manifestation of divinity already in man.

(3) To hear and acknowledge the truths of religion is the best way to be religious.

(4) To be good and do good is the whole of religion.

Topic: Contemporary Indian Philosophy

Subtopic: Vivekananda

Sub-subtopic: Universal Religion

Q 7. Below are given pairs of authors and books/works. Identify the correctly matched pairs:

(1) Rabindranath Tagore – Gora

(2) Muhammed Iqbal – The Human Cycle

(3) K. C. Bhattacharya – The Subject as Freedom

(4) Jiddu Krishnamurthy – The First and Last Freedom

Topic: Contemporary Indian Philosophy

Subtopic: Tagore/Iqbal/K. C. Bhattacharya/J. Krishnamurthy

Sub-subtopic: NA

Q 8. Which of the following reflect true positions held by the Milesian School of Pre-Socratic philosophy?

(1) Anaximander believed that the ultimate principle of creation is ‘Apeiron’ , which refers to fire.

(2) Anaximenes believed that the earth was a flat disc floating upon air.

(3) Thales was notable for having predicted an eclipse during his time.

(4) Unlike Thales and Anaximenes, Anaximander believed that the earth was spherical.

Topic: Classical and Modern Western Philosophy

Subtopic: Metaphysics

Sub-subtopic: Pre-Socratic philosophy of Thales/Anaximenes/Ionians

Q 9. Based on Aristotle՚s classification of sciences, identify the true statements:

(1) Aristotle considered dialectics to be a science.

(2) By productive sciences, Aristotle refers to the science of agriculture, by which food grains are produced.

(3) Practical sciences include ethics and politics.

(4) Mathematics, physics and biology are considered to be theoretical sciences.

Topic: Classical and Modern Western Philosophy

Subtopic: Epistemology

Sub-subtopic: Doxa, Episteme and Sophia

Q 10. Which of the following statements are in accordance with St. Augustine՚s position on the problem of evil?

(1) Evil is primitive good.

(2) God has caused man՚s moral fall: it is all part of His Divine plan.

(3) Evil is necessary for the enhancement of greater good.

(4) God does not merely permit evil, but also creates it.

Topic: Classical and Modern Western Philosophy

Subtopic: Metaphysics

Sub-subtopic: Problem of Evil and existence of God in St. Augustine

Q 11. Identify the statements that reflect Baruch Spinoza՚s conception of God:

(1) God, according to Spinoza, is extra-cosmic: He is different from His creation.

(2) Spinoza considers God to be the ultimate reality that is one, formless and unqualified.

(3) Spinoza believed that God cannot be the object of devotion, but only the object of intellectual love.

(4) Spinoza makes a clear distinction between God and Substance and states that they are different from each other.

Topic: Classical and Modern Western Philosophy

Subtopic: Metaphysics

Sub-subtopic: The existence of God

Q 12. Which of the following are congruent with Berkeley՚s critique of abstract ideas?

(1) The doctrine of abstract ideas has the fallacy of vicious abstraction.

(2) The doctrine of abstract ideas suffers from arbitrariness.

(3) The abstract idea of motion is distinct from the abstract idea of the moving body.

(4) Berkeley՚s critique of abstract ideas logically leads to his doctrine of immaterialism.

Topic: Classical and Modern Western Philosophy

Subtopic: Epistemology

Sub-subtopic: Berkeley՚s Critique of Abstract Ideas

Q 13. With reference to Kant՚s postulates of morality, identify the correct options:

(1) Determinism forms the basis of morality.

(2) The immortality of the soul is a postulate of morality, since it ensures the attainment of the end of morality.

(3) The existence of God is a postulate of morality, since Kant believed that it is God alone who makes us do all our actions – moral or immoral.

(4) The existence of God is necessary to ensure that the virtuous who suffer in this world are justly rewarded in another world.

Topic: Classical and Modern Western Philosophy

Subtopic: Ethics

Sub-subtopic: Postulates of Morality

Q 14. In the light of Locke՚s views on the state of nature, which of the following are incorrect?

(1) Man in the state of nature of nature was in perpetual conflict with others and found nothing but grief.

(2) The problem with the state of nature was the absence of a recognized system of law and justice.

(3) The state of nature was one where man՚s every action was dictated by his Neighbours.

(4) The state of nature was both pre-political and pre-moral.

Topic: Classical and Modern Western Philosophy

Subtopic: Social and Political Philosophy

Sub-subtopic: Classical Liberalism and Social Contact Theory (Hobbes, Rousseau, Locke)

Q 15. Which of the following statements are true with regard to Karl Marx՚s ideas on alienation?

(1) Alienation is not merely a subjective state of mind, but an objective process.

(2) The establishment of a routine work flow, like an assembly line, is a way to counter alienation in a Capitalist system.

(3) The fact that the commodities produced by a worker are not his own results in alienation.

(4) The Capitalist system leads to alienation of the workers from their fellow human beings.

Topic: Classical and Modern Western Philosophy

Subtopic: Social and Political Philosophy

Sub-subtopic: Alienation

Q 16. Identify the valid immediate inferences one may draw from the Square of Opposition:

(1) If A is true – E is false; I is true; O is false.

(2) If I is true – A is true; E is false; O is undetermined.

(3) If O is false – A is true; E is false; I is undetermined.

(4) If E is false – A is undetermined; I is true; O is undetermined.

Topic: Classical and Modern Western Philosophy

Subtopic: Logic

Sub-subtopic: Square of Opposition

Q 17. Which of the following are true laws of thought according to Western logic?

(1) Violation of the law of identity leads to the informal fallacy of amphiboly.

(2) The law of identity and the law of excluded middle are considered to be tautologies.

(3) The law of non-contradiction states that no statement can be both true and false at the same time in the same sense.

(4) The law of identity states that all statements must either be true or false.

Topic: Classical and Modern Western Philosophy

Subtopic: Logic

Sub-subtopic: Laws of Thought

Q 18. Frege, in “On Sense and Reference” , makes which of the following statements?

(1) Sign is any expression which may be used to designate an object.

(2) Every object has only one sign designating it.

(3) It is possible to substitute different statements with different senses and signs without changing their truth value.

(4) It is not necessary that every sign that refers to an object should have a sense or meaning.

Topic: Contemporary Western Philosophy

Subtopic: Frege՚s Sense and Reference

Sub-subtopic: None

Q 19. Which of the following statements does William James make in “The Varieties of Religious Experience” ?

(1) The teachings, practices and attitudes of the religion are as important as the experiences of religion.

(2) All religious experiences indicate the probability of God.

(3) Religious conversation is a transformation from a divided, imperfect self to a more unified consciousness.

(4) The value of a religious experience is independent of the effect it produces on the life of the experiencer.

Topic: Contemporary Western Philosophy

Subtopic: William James՚ Varieties of Religious Experience

Sub-subtopic: None

Q 20. According to Bertrand Russell՚s views on Logical Atomism and Definite Descriptions, which of the following statements is incorrect?

(1) Logical atoms, according to Russell, are not the same as physical atoms.

(2) Russell՚s theory of logical atomism depends on the philosophy of Mathematics.

(3) Russell believed that everyday language was sufficiently sophisticated to properly represent the truths of philosophy.

(4) The term “The King of America” is an example of a definite description.

Topic: Contemporary Western Philosophy

Subtopic: Russell՚s Logical Atomism, Definite Descriptions

Sub-subtopic: None

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