GMAT Exam: Grammar Rules for GMAT Verbal, Modifiers, Parallelism, Pronoun, Comparison

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Grammar Rules for GMAT Verbal

Modifiers

  • Modifiers include clauses, words, or phrases that describe other parts of a sentence.
  • For example, I՚m going to the Madras Café for a vegetarian burger. In this sentence, the word “burger” is modified by the word “vegetarian” .
  • Dangling modifier:
    • When a modifier is not modifying a specific word.
    • Most common modifier-related errors.
    • The modifying phrase is misplaced.
    • Describes the incorrect word or phrase.
  • For example, after consulting a selection of current authors, this book has been shortlisted. In this sentence it is not clear who is consulting the selection of current authors.

Subject Verb Agreement

  • In number (singular or plural) , the Subjects and Verbs must agree with one another.
  • A singular subject should be followed by a singular verb whereas a plural subject should be followed by a plural verb.

Examples

  • Footballs roll across the floor.
  • Salt and flour are needed for the recipe.

Pronoun

A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun.

For example, I saw John Smith at Whole Foods. John Smith is hilarious.

The above sentence becomes “I saw John Smith at Whole Foods; he is hilarious.”

Common Pronouns

Common Pronouns
SingularPlural
I/MeWe/Us
Him/Her/ItThey/Them
Much/LessMany/Few
Who/Which/ThatWho/Which/That

Comparison

Like vs. As

  • The words appear similar and hence confusing.
  • Specifically, ‘like’ compares two nouns.
  • ‘As’ compares two clauses.
  • As is always followed by a second verb. Whereas ‘Like’ isn՚t followed by a second verb.

Between vs. Among

‘Between’ is used while comparing a direct relationship between two items. Whereas ‘Among’ is used while comparing a group of items.

Either vs Neither

  • If ‘either’ is used to compare two items, ‘or’ is used.
  • If ‘neither’ is used to compare two items, ‘nor’ is used.

Parallelism

  • It requires the verbs in a sentence to be in a similar form.
  • It is the repetition of repetition of words, structure, or other grammatical elements in writing and speaking.
  • Phrases that constitute a sentence must be parallel.

Examples

You get what you get.

No pain, no gain.

The team went on to win the match and win the hearts of the audience too.

Verbs

  • The verb՚s structure will change depending on the tense of a verb – past, present, or future.
  • Three categories define a verb՚s state:
    • Simple, continuous, and perfect

Simple Tense

For example, “I will play tonight.”

Continuous Tense

For example, I was sleeping when the meal arrived.

Perfect Tense

For example, I had been watching TV for two hours when I ordered the meal.

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