Reading Comprehension Questions for GMAT

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Time duration: 30 minutes

Directions: This part is comprised of three reading passages. Before answering the questions, carefully read the passage first. The questions are based on what is mentioned in the passage.

This passage was written before the fall of the Soviet Union.

Passage 1: With Friedrich Engels, Karl Marx in the year 1848 in 1848 published the Communist Manifesto, calling upon the masses to rise and throw off their economic chains. His mature theories of society were later elaborated in his large and abstruse work Das Kapital. Starting as a non-violent revolutionist, he ended life as a core social theorist more or less sympathetic with violent revolution, if such became necessary in order to change the social system which he believed to be frankly predatory upon the masses. On the theoretical side, Marx set up the doctrine of surplus value as the chief element in capitalistic exploitation. According to this theory, the ruling classes no longer employed military force primarily as a means to plundering the people. Rather they used their control over employment and working conditions under the bourgeois capitalistic system for this purpose, paying only a bare subsistence wage to the worker while they appropriated all surplus values in the productive process. He further taught that the strategic disadvantage of the worker in industry prevented him from obtaining a fairer share of the earnings by bargaining methods and drove him to revolutionary procedures as a means to establishing his economic and social rights. This revolution might be peacefully consummated by parliamentary procedures if the people prepared themselves for political action by mastering the materialistic interpretation of history and by organizing politically for the final event. It was his belief that the aggressions of the capitalist class would ultimately destroy the middle class and take over all their sources of income by a process of capitalistic absorption of industry-a process which has failed to occur in most countries. With minor exceptions, Marx՚s social philosophy is now generally accepted by left-wing labor movements in many countries, but rejected by centrist labor groups, especially those in the United States. In Russia and other Eastern European countries, Also Socialist leaders chose the methods of violent revolution because of the opposition of the ruling classes. Yet, many now hold that the present Communist regime in Russia and her satellite countries is no longer a proletarian movement based on Marxist social and political theory, but a camouflaged imperialistic effort to dominate the world in the interest of a new ruling class. It is important, however, that those who wish to approach Marx as a teacher should not be “buffaloed” by his philosophic approach. They are very likely to in these days, because those most interested in propagating the ideas of Marx, the Russian Bolsheviks, have swallowed down his Hegelian Philosophy along with his science of revolutionary engineering, and they look upon us irrelevant peoples, who presume to mediate social and even revolutionary problems without making our indifference to them. They are wrong in scorning our distaste for having practical programs presented in the form of systems of philosophy. In that we simply represent a more progressive intellectual culture than that in which Marx received his education-a culture farther emerged from the dominance of religious attitudes.

  1. The author stated the then-present Communist regime in Russia may best be categorized as a or an-
    1. proletarian movement.
    2. social government.
    3. imperialistic state.
    4. revolutionary government.
    5. social democracy.
  2. Marx՚s social philosophy is usually accepted by-
    1. centrist labor groups
    2. most labor unions.
    3. left-wing labor unions.
    4. only those in Communist countries.
    5. only those in Russia.
  3. It can be said that the author of the passage is-
    1. sympathetic to Marx՚s ideas.
    2. unsympathetic to Marx՚s ideas.
    3. uncritical of Marx՚s interpretation of history.
    4. a believer in Hegelian philosophy
    5. a Leninist-Marxist.
  4. Which of the following classes did Marx believe should control the economy-
    1. the working class
    2. the upper class
    3. the middle class
    4. the lower class
    5. the capitalist class
  5. According to Marx, a social and economic revolution could take place through-
    1. parliamentary procedures.
    2. political action.
    3. violent revolution.

    Which is correct?

    1. I only
    2. III only
    3. I or II only
    4. II or III only
    5. I, II, or III
  6. As per the passage, the chief element in Marx՚s analysis of capitalist exploitation was the doctrine of-
    1. just wages.
    2. the price system.
    3. surplus value.
    4. predatory production.
    5. subsistence work.
  7. Das Kapital differs from the Communist Manifesto in that it-
    1. was written with the help of Friedrich Engels.
    2. retreated from Marx՚s earlier revolutionary stance.
    3. expressed a more fully developed form of Marxist theory.
    4. denounced the predatory nature of the capitalist system.
    5. expressed sympathy for the plight of the middle class.
  8. According to the passage, Marx ended his life-
    1. a believer is nonviolent revolution.
    2. accepting violent revolution.
    3. a core social theorist.

    Which is correct?

    1. I only
    2. III only
    3. I and III only
    4. II and III only
    5. Neither I, II, nor III