Psychology Study Material: Steps of Scientific Method: Identifying the Research Problem

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Steps of Scientific Method

Steps of Scientific Method

Identifying the Research Problem

The most important step while conducting research is identify and specify the area of interest in which one is going to conduct a research. The research problem can be identified in many ways, including personal interest, brainstorming, scientific developments, knowledge etc.

Review of the Related Literature

Searching the research findings in relation with the research one is going to conduct, in order to see how others approached the same or similar issues. Also, it can give some idea as to what the probable outcome of one՚s would be research.

Formulation of Hypotheses

  • A hypothesis is a speculative statement about the relationship between two or more variables. By reviewing the related literature, one is able to formulate the hypotheses pertaining to the variables of interest.
  • Reviewing the related research articles helps one formulate various hypotheses.

Designing and Conducting the Research

After reviewing the related literature and making hypotheses, the research is conducted by using different strategies such as Questionnaires, mail interviews, telephonic interviews, face to face interviews etc. A variety of research designs is available to the researchers, who can choose the one that best suits their study.

Analysis of Data

After collecting information, the data will be tabulated with the help of statistical methods and computation in order to see whether the finding prove or disprove the hypotheses.

Drawing Conclusions

Conclusions are drawn after the statistical analysis of data. On the basis of this, a decision is made about the rejection or acceptance of the hypothesis.

Non-Manipulative/Descriptive Methods

The methods in which the phenomenon of interest is studied the way it exists in nature. The researcher does not interfere with the events, and acts as a passive recorder.

Manipulative/Experimental Methods

The methods that is responsible for the scientific nature of psychology. In these methods the researcher exercises control over the variables and events. He may introduce variables of interest or may withhold them. These methods are used for determining cause and effect relationships.

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