अनुसंधान विधियों के 14 प्रकार (14 Types of Research Methods) for Competitive Exams for Competitive Exams

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Framework of Research Methods

Basic Versus Applied (बेसिक बनाम एप्लाइड)

  • Fundamental or Basic or Pure – New knowledge – why, what & how – advancement of theory – single discipline – in technical language
  • Applied – solve specific problem – solve immediate problem for betterment – in common language

Fixed Versus Flexible

  • Fixed Research – design is fixed, theory driven, measured quantitatively
  • Flexible Research – more freedom for data collection, qualitative

Quantitative vs. Qualitative (मात्रात्मक बनाम गुणात्मक)

  • Quantitative – Collection & analysis of data – from questionnaire, survey (assume world to be stable so can be measured) – deductive (logic) निगमनात्मक
  • Qualitative – Non-numeric – like observation, interview (since perspective of people differs) – narrative description and field focused – inductive (empirical) आगमनात्मक
Induction and Deduction

Experimental vs. Non-Experimental

  • Experimental - Cause effect relationship, control gp & experimental gp (can include pilot study) , manipulate IV, effect of changing IV on DV, starts with hypothesis, control of extraneous variable is important, Control experiment – physical, selective, statistical
  • Non-experimental – Uses theories & reasoning, has wide scope
    • Exploratory (खोजपूर्ण)
    • Descriptive (वर्णनात्मक)
    • Historical (ऐतिहासिक)

Exploratory vs. Confirmatory Research (खोजपूर्ण बनाम स्थायीकरण रिसर्च)

  • Exploratory – explore possibility of doing research where due to paucity of knowledge, hypothesis testing is difficult (e. g. , vendor may explore possible sales areas) – has higher level of uncertainty & ignorance of subject, easier to make new discoveries – less stringent – case study, ethnography, projective techniques
  • Exploratory research generates a posteriori hypotheses by examining a data-set and looking for potential relations between variables.
  • Confirmatory research tests a priori hypotheses - outcome predictions that are made before the measurement phase begins. Are usually derived from a theory or the results of previous studies.

Explanatory or Casual Research (स्पष्टीकरण या कारण शोध)

  • Explains cause effect relationship
  • Idea is to understand does a change in X cause a change in Y?
  • It can employ statistical method or experimental method
  • It is a conclusive research – determine relation between causal variable and effect predicted

Descriptive Research (वर्णनात्मक अनुसंधान)

  • Only why and what – not deals with “how” (what are benefits of multimedia textbooks as compared to print textbooks)
  • More structured than exploratory
  • Static – single phenomena – public opinion
  • Dynamic - cross sectional or longitudinal
  • Includes
    • Survey studies – assess characteristics of whole population
    • Interrelationship studies – relationship among data (case studies, casual comparative, correlational)
    • Developmental studies – changes as function of time (growth, trend, model development)

Historical Research (ऐतिहासिक अनुसंधान)

  • Examine past events
  • Qualitative
  • Primary source – relic, remain, artifacts
  • Secondary source – textbook, newspaper, periodicals
  • Criticism – external (genuineness of source) and internal (based on accuracy and competence of writer)

Ex-Post Facto or Casual - Comparative Research

  • Quasi-experimental – participants are not randomly assigned – 2 gp. with different IV and compare them on DV
  • IV (cause) prior to study affects DV (effect)
  • Studies what researcher cannot alter (can՚t make a person overweight for studying its effect on behavior)
  • Tsunami hit area

Correlational Research (सहसंबंधी अनुसंधान)

  • Degree of relationship b/w variables
  • It is quantitative
  • Range -1 to 0 to + 1

Evaluation Research (मूल्यांकन अनुसंधान)

  • Determines impact of social intervention (impact of program on certain social problem)
  • Strategies
  • Scientific-experimental model – accuracy and objectivity
  • Management oriented - PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) , and CPM (Critical Path Method)
  • Qualitative Anthropological model – importance of observation
  • Participant-oriented – client-centered and stakeholder approach

Formative vs. Summative Evaluation

  • Formative – improve object being evaluated
    • Need assessment – who needs and how great the need is
    • Evaluative assessment – evaluation is feasible
    • Structured conceptualization
    • Implementation - transparency
    • Process
  • Summative Evaluation – examine effect or outcome
    • Outcome
    • Impact – broader than outcome (includes intended and unintended effects)
    • Cost-effectiveness
    • Secondary analysis – reexamine data to address new questions
    • Meta-analysis – integrate outcome from multiple studies

Diagnostic Research (नैदानिक अनुसंधान)

  • Find the cause
  • Emergence of problem ⇾ diagnosis and solution

Prognostic Research (पूर्वज्ञान संबंधी अनुसंधान)

  • Find relation b/w predictor and outcome
  • Find course of action
  • Early detection

Action Research (क्रिया शोध)

  • Solve immediate problem, carried by actors (main people)
  • Led by team – participatory or practical
  • Might include observation, interview, field note, survey or questionnaire
  • Individual – one person
  • Collaborative – 2 or more
  • School-wide – entire system

Types of Research Problems Addressed

  • Exploratory (खोजपूर्ण) questions -What is the case? , What are the key factors?
  • Descriptive (वर्णनात्मक) questions - How many? , What is the incidence of x? , Are x and y related?
  • Causal questions (कारण) - Why? , What are the causes of y?
  • Evaluative (मूल्यांकन) questions - What was the outcome of x? , Has P been successful?
  • Predictive (पूर्वानुमान) questions - What will the effect of x be on y?

Historical (ऐतिहासिक) questions - What led to y happening? , What were the events that led up to y? , What caused y?

Table of Research Design and Research Methodology
अनुसन्धान रेखा – चित्र (Research design)अनुसंधान क्रियाविधि (Research methodology)
Focuses on the end-product: What kind of study is being planned and what kind of results are aimed at.

E. g. Historical – Comparative study,

Interpretive approach OR exploratory study, inductive and deductive etc.

Focuses on the research process and the kind of tools and procedures to be used.

E. g. Document analysis, Survey methods, analysis of existing (secondary) data/statistics etc)

Point of departure (driven by) = Research problem or questionPoint of departure (driven by) = specific tasks (data collection or sampling) at hand.
Focuses on the logic of research: What evidence is required to address the question adequately?Focuses on the individual (not linear) steps in the research process and the most ‘objective’ (unbiased) procedures to be employed.