Urbanisation Key Challenges and Policy Response Economics YouTube Lecture Handouts

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Urbanisation Key Challenges and Policy Response

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  • Childe offers a listing of ten characteristics of an urban civilization which can be separated into five primary characteristics referring to primary changes in the organization of society and five secondary features indicative of the presence of the primary factors.
  • Primary Factors: Size and density, specialization of labour etc.
  • Secondary Factors: Monumental Public works,

Key Challenges as Per World Bank

  • Empowerment Deficit: Limited, overlapping, and fragmented functional responsibilities leading to unclear accountability.
  • Resource Deficit: Limited revenue-generation powers, limited fund transfer by the government, delayed payments affects the financial resources which hampers development.
  • Accountability Deficit: Despite elections and the right to information, transparency structures, roles, and mandates are unclear.
  • Delivery Deficit: Insufficient provision and maintenance of municipal services and networks, ineffective grievance Redressal mechanism.

Key Policies

Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT)

  • Aim is to provide facilities in urban areas like water supply, sewerage and septage management (STP) and urban transport.
  • Developing greenery, well-maintained open spaces, reducing pollution by increasing usage of public transport. Setting up infrastructure for Storm-water drains, parking spaces, recreation centers etc.
  • Thus, it adopts a project based approach to ensure availability of basic infrastructure services in urban areas.

Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana (PMAY) Housing for All (Urban) 2022

  • It is led by Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation.
  • The policy aims to address the problem of housing in the urban area and to provide affordable housing. This will solve the problem of housing.
    • Rehabilitation of slum dwellers
    • Credit linked subsidy
    • Affordable housing through public or private partnership
    • Subsidy for beneficiary led individual house construction or enhancement.

Smart Cities Mission (SCM)

  • It is an initiative under the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs to drive economic growth and improve the quality of life of people by enabling local development and harnessing technology as a means.
  • The Objective is to promote cities that provide core infrastructure and give a decent quality of life to its citizens, a clean and sustainable environment with smart solutions. Thus, creating sustainable and inclusive societies.
  • The focused area would be Mobility and Energy efficiency, Electricity, Information and Communication Technology, Water Supply, Sanitation, Solid Waste Management.

Practice Question

Q 1 Which of the following statements is/are correct about AMRUT scheme? 1. AMRUT and Smart Cities Mission missions are interlinked.

2. AMRUT will lay the foundation for smart cities to grow and develop

A. Only 1

B. Only 2

C. Both

D. None

Answer: C

Chapters:

0: 00 Urbanisation: Key Challenges And Policy Response

2: 01 Key Challenges As Per World Bank

6: 00 Key Policies: Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT)

7: 48 Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana (PMAY) Housing for All (Urban) 2022

9: 40 Smart Cities Mission (SCM)

11: 19 MCQ about Urbanisation

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